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Volume 22(1); June 2009
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Original Articles
Study of the Length of Needle Thoracostomy Catheter Needed for Patients with Chest Trauma
Sung Won Kang, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jung Bae Park, Kang Suk Seo, Jae Myung Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):1-4.
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PURPOSE
This study was conducted to evaluate the length of the catheter used in a needle thoracostomy for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax by measuring the chest wall thickness (CWT) in patients with chest trauma METHODS: A retrospective review of 201 patients with chest trauma who had been transported the emergency department in a tertiary university hospital in a metropolitan area between 1 January and 31 February 2007 was performed. The average CWT at the second intercostal space (ICS) in the midclavicular line (MCL) was measured by using a chest computed tomography scan.
RESULTS
As the left and the right mean CWTs were 3.4+/-1.0 cm and 3.4+/-1.0 cm, respectively, there was no significant statistical difference between them. The mean CWT of female patients was significantly higher than that of male patients (p=0.001). The mean CWT of patients under the age of 65 years was significantly thicker than that of the patients over the age of 65 years (p<0.001). Of the studied patients, 12 (6.0%) a CWT > 5 cm.
CONCLUSION
A 5 cm-length catheter in a needle thoracostomy may be insufficient for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax, so a catheter longer than 5 cm in length is needed.
Summary
Clinical Characteristics of Patients Treated in an Emergency Center for Vascular Trauma
Yong Myeon Park, Seok Ran Yeom, Jin Woo Jeong, Sang Kyun Han, Suck Ju Cho, Ji Ho Ryu, Yong In Kim, Sung Woon Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):5-11.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The mortality and the amputation rates due to vascular trauma remain high despite advanced vascular surgical techniques and supportive management. The clinical features of patients with vascular trauma have not been well studied in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with vascular trauma and to develop a database and guidelines for improving the outcomes of treatment.
METHODS
The medical records of 37 patients with traumatic vascular injuries who had visited in an emergency center between January 2002 and December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed.
RESULTS
The mean age was 37.8 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 5.2 : 1. The mechanism of vascular trauma was penetrating in 18 patients and blunt in 19 patients. Upper extremities were most frequently injured (39.4%). The treatment methods were primary repair in 21 patients, exploratory laparotomies in 7, radiological interventions in 3, resections and graft interpositions of the pseudoaneurysm in 3, observations in 3 and a bypass graft in 1. Four out of the 37 patients died, and three of these who died had injuried abdominal vessels. Twenty-five of the patients recovered completely, four expired, seven had neuropathy in the course of treatement, one had his limb amputated, and one experienced wound necrosis.
CONCLUSION
Peripheral vessel injuries are commonly accompanied by nerve, muscle, or tendon injuries. Patients without associated fractures or compartment syndrome had good prognosis. Although the time intervals from hospital arrival to definite treatment were the shortest among patients with blunt abdominal vascular injuries, three expired. Therefore, we offer a 'critical pathway' to improve the outcomes of patients with blunt abdominal vascular injury.
Summary
The Prognostic Significance of Injury Severity Score and Height of Fall in Free Fall Patients
Kyung Su Seo, Soon Tae Park, Woo Song Ha, Sang Kyung Choi, Soon Chan Hong, Young Joon Lee, Eun Jung Jung, Chi Young Jeong, Sang Ho Jeong, Young Tae Ju
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):12-17.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In this study, the prognostic significance of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the height of fall in free-fall patients were investigated.
METHODS
The medical records of 179 victims of falls from a height who were brought alive to the Emergency Department of Gyeongsang National University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2007 were analyzed. The age, the sex of the patients, the rate of admission, the hospital stay, the site of injury, the severity of injury, the rate of surgery, the site of the fall and the presence of alcohol intoxication were evaluated by using a retrospective review of the medical records. Injury severity was measured by using the ISS. Patients were categorized into four subgroups according to the height from where they had fallen. The data were statistically analyzed with using SPSS ver. 10.0.
RESULTS
The admission rates for the subgroups with falls of less than 3 stories were significantly lower than those for the subgroups with higher heights of falls (70.7% vs. 100%, p<0.05). These two subgroups showed statistically significant differences in mean hospital stay (17.11+/-24.88 vs. 56.73+/-49.21, p<0.05), rate of operation (30.6% vs. 53.8%, p<0.05), and mean ISS (6.86+/-4.97 vs. 13.96+/-9.14, p<0.05). In the correlation analysis, the ISS and the mean hospital stay showed the highest correlation with correlation coefficient of 0.666.
CONCLUSION
In this retrospective analysis of 179 free-fall patients, we evaluated the prognostic factors affecting the outcomes for the free-fall patients. The patients who had fallen from heights of 3 stories or higher showed statistically significant higher rates of admission, longer durations of hospital stay, higher ISSs, and higher operation rates. The most accurate factor in predicting the length of hospital stay was the ISS.
Summary
The Relationship between Facial Fractures and Radiologically-proven Cranial Injuries
Jin Woo Song, Ik Joon Jo, Sang Kook Han, Yeon Kwon Jeong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):18-23.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In this study, we retrospectively investigated the medical records of patients with facial fractures and suspected cranial injuries in order to determine if there was any relationship between various facial fracture patterns and cranial injuries.
METHODS
Medical records were reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with facial fractures who underwent cranial computed tomography (CT) scans. Records were reviewed for gender, age, injury mechanism, facial fracture pattern, and presence or absence of cranial injuries. Facial fracture patterns were classified as isolated fractures (tripod, zygomatic arch, maxilla, orbit, and mandible), combined fractures, or total fractures. Cranial injuries included skull fractures, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhages, subdural hemorrhages, epidural hemorrhages, and contusional hemorrhages. All cranial injuries were established by using cranial CT scans, and these kinds of cranial injuries were defined radiologically-proven cranial injuries (RPCIs). We evaluated the relationship between each pattern of facial fractures and the incidence of RPCIs.
RESULTS
Of 132 eligible patients with facial fractures who underwent cranial CT scans, a total of 27 (20.5%) patients had RPCIs associated with facial fractures. Falls and slips were the most common causes of the fractures (31.8%), followed by assaults and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). One hundred one (76.5%) patients had isolated facial fractures, and 31 (23.5%) patients had combined facial fractures. Fractures were found most commonly in the orbital and maxillary bones. Patients with isolated maxillary fractures had a lower incidence of RPCIs than those with total mandibular fractures. RPCIs frequently accompanied combined facial fractures.
CONCLUSION
Combined facial fractures had a significant positive correlation with RPCIs. This means that facial fractures caused by stronger or multidirectional external force are likely to be accompanied by cranial injuries.
Summary
Is There a Need for Conventional Spine Radiographs Following a Negative Chest and Abdominal CT in Trauma Patients?
Sung Chan Oh
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):24-28.
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PURPOSE
This was conducted to assess the need for conventional radiographs of the thoracolumbar spine for routine screening of trauma patients who revealed no spinal trauma on chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT).
METHODS
We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of trauma patients who underwent conventional radiographs of the thoracolumbar spine following a chest and abdominal CT that revealed no spinal trauma.
RESULTS
Two hundred seventy-five trauma patients underwent conventional radiographs of the thoracolumbar spine following a chest and abdominal CT that revealed no spinal trauma. In 274 of the cases, the thoracolumbar spine series was also negative.
CONCLUSION
CT of the chest and abdomen is an adequate evaluation of the thoracolumbar spine in trauma patients who require routine thoracolumbar spine screening, making subsequent conventional radiographs of the thoracolumbar spine unnecessary.
Summary
Characteristics of Wrist Injuries in Snowboarding
Yeong Jun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang, Jin Rok Oh
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):29-36.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics and severity of wrist injuries in snowboarding.
METHODS
December 2005 to February 2008, Snowboarders who experienced wrist injures were included in this study. On the basis of the medical records and radiographic evaluation, the severity of distal radius fracture was classified according to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification.
RESULTS
Most of the injured snowboarders were a either of the beginner (35 cases, 46.1%) or the intermediate (27 cases, 35.5%) level. The most common cause of injury in snowboarding was a slip down (60 cases, 78.9%). Comminuted and articular fractures classified as AO types A3, B, and C, which required surgical reduction, made up 42.3% of the distal radial fractures in snowboarders. When we analyzed the differences in severity between the educated and the non-educated groups, an A2 type injury in the AO classification was the most common type of injury in the educated group (20 cases, 38.5%), it means less severe fractures ocurred in the educated group (p=0.045). The most frequent injury mechanism of fractures was slip down (48 cases, 63.2%), and a slip down backwards was the dominant type of slip down (36 cases, 75.0%) (p=0.031).
CONCLUSION
Among the snowboarders in this study who suffered self-down injury to the wrist, more fractures were associated with a backwards slip down than with a forward slip down due to over extension. For educated snowboarders the severity of fracture was lower than it was for uneducated snowboarders.
Summary
A Cause Analysis of Missed Fractures in an Emergency Medical Center
Deuk Hyun Park, Sung Sil Lee, Dong Un Kim, Hyun Young Cho, Young Geun Lee, Jun Su Kim, Jin Jun, Young Kim, Young Rock Ha, Tae Yong Shin
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):37-43.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A missed fracture is a very common occurrence in the Emergency Department (ED) and can have serious results because of delays in treatment, resulting in long-term disability. It is also one of the most common causes leading to medical legal issues. We analyzed the causes of missed fractures by using a bone scan which is known to be an effective tool for diagnosing bony lesions.
METHODS
We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who underwent a bone scan after being discharged the ED from September 2006 to March 2008. Cases of missed fractures were identified by using electronic medical records to review each diagnosis. Definition of missed fracture was read after bone scan by radiologist. We decided that there was no fracture if we read 'trauma-related lesion' or 'cannot rule out fracture' on a bone scan read by a radiologist. Enrolled patients were analyzed by age, sex, time until bone scan and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients were divided into two groups, alert mentality and not-alert mentality, so there were split between a diagnosis group and a missed fracture group. ISS was also used in determining the severity of the patient's injury upon discharge from the ED.
RESULTS
A total of 532 patients were enrolled in this study. Of those, 487 patients were in the diagnosis group, and 45 patients (8.4%) were discovered to have had a fracture. Of the 45 missed fracture patients, 34 patients (6.4%) had one-site fractures, 8 patients (1.5%) had two-site fractures, and 3 patients (0.6%) had threesite fractures. The most commonly missed fracture was multiple rib fractures (18 patients, 30.5%), followed by lumbosacral (LS) spine fractures (10 patients, 16.9%), thoracic spine fractures (8 patients, 13.6%), and clavicle fractures (6 patients, 10.2%). Mean age was 50.12+/-18.54 years in the diagnosis group and 57.38+/-16.88 years in the missed fracture group. For the diagnosis group, the mean ISS was 9.03+/-8.26, but in the missed fracture group it was 17.53+/-9.69. Missed fractures were much more frequent in the not-alert mentality (p<0.01) and in the high ISS (ISS> or =16) group (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION
Missed fractures occur most frequent in patients of old age, not-alert mentality, and high ISS. Multiple rib and spine fractures were found to be the most frequent missed fractures, regardless of trauma severity. This study also shows a high possibility of clavicle and scapula fractures in patients with severe trauma.
Summary
The Causes of Blow-out Fracture in Old Age Patients and Their Computed Tomography Findings and Associated Facial Bone Fracture
Dong Woo Seo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Sang Ku Jung, Shin Ahn, Won Young Kim, Won Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):44-50.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the causes of blow-out fractures, the computed tomography findings, and the associated facial bone fractures in aged patients.
METHODS
This study was performed by conducting a chart review. From January 2004 to December 2007, the patients who visited the emergency room of Asan Medical Center and were diagnosed as having a blow-out fracture were included in the study population. Patients 60 years of age or older were grouped as the aged group while patients younger than 60 years of age were grouped as the control group.
RESULTS
Between the aged group and the control group, there was a difference in the causes of blow-out fractures. The most common cause of blow-out fracture was a slip down in the aged group and violence in the control group (p<0.05). There were no differences in associated symptoms. Extraocular muscle herniation was the only statistically different computed tomography findings. In associated facial bone fractures, the most common fractures were the zygoma in the aged group and the nasal bone in the control group (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
In patients 60 years of age or older, the most common cause of blow-out fracture was a slip down, and the most common associated facial bone fracture was a zygomatic fracture.
Summary
A Pilot Study on Environmental Factors Contributing to Childhood Home Slip-Down Injuries
Jeong Min Ryu, Min Hoo Seo, Won Young Kim, Won Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):51-56.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental factors contributing to childhood home slip-down injuries.
METHODS
Among a total of 2,812 injured children in our Customer Injury Surveillance System (CISS), we performed a prospective study on 262 children with home slip-down injuries who visited the pediatric emergency department of Asan Medical Center between March 2008 and February 2009. We made a frequency analysis on parameters such as activities just before the accident, the presence of any obstacles or lubricant materials, specific home place in the home where the injuries occurred, flooring materials on which the slipdown happened, additional objects hit after slip down, the site and kind of injury, the duration of therapy, and the disposition.
RESULTS
Walking was the most common activity just before the injury. Because rooms and bathrooms were most common places in the home for slip down injuries, laminated papers/ vinyl floor coverings and tiles were the most common flooring materials used in the places where the injuries occured. Most commonly, no obstacles caused the children to slip down, but the furniture, stairs, doorsills, wetness, or soapy fluid followed after that. Over half of the children who slipped (58%) also collided with other than the floor itself after the slipdown, most common objects hit were the edges of the furniture, and doorsills, followed by stairways. The head and neck were the most commonly injured sites, and a laceration was the most common kind of injury. Most children needed less than 1 week of therapy, only 4 children (1.53%) admitted. There were no mortalities.
CONCLUSION
The environmental factors contributing to slip-down injuries were the bathroom, laminated papers/vinyl floors, the furniture, stairs, doorsills, and wetness or soapy fluid. Especially, the furniture, stairs, and doorsills can be both primary obstacles and secondary collision objects. For the safety of our children, we must consider these factors on housing, when decorating or remodeling our house.
Summary
Prognosis for Blunt Abdominal Trauma Patients with Contrast Extravasation on the Abdominopelvic CT Scan
Hyung Jin Shin, Kang Hyun Lee, Young Soo Kwak, Sun Hyu Kim, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):57-64.
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PURPOSE
Computed tomography (CT) is an accurate test for evaluating hemodynamically stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma. Until now, there have been few studies concentrating on the diagnostic and prognostic significance of the intravenous contrast extravasation (CE) site. We investigated the site of CE on abdominopelvic CT (APCT) and its effect on treating trauma patients and predicting the clinical outcome.
METHODS
The 50 patients admitted to our emergency department with blunt abdominal trauma showing CE on APCT from January 2004 to September 2006 were included in this study. Patients were prospectively collected, and medical records were reviewed and analyzed. The patients'clinical and lab findings, Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) findings, CT findings were analyzed. CE sites were classified as intraperitoneal, retroperitoneal, and pelvic cavity and were correlated with post-treatment complications, mortality, and morbidity.
RESULTS
Of the 50 patients (mean age : 45+/-18years, 29 males, 21 females) included in our study, 33 patients died (66%). There was no correlation between CE site and ICU or total hospitalization duration (p=0.553, p=0.523). During the first 24 hours of resuscitation, the pelvic cavity group required a mean of 20 units more of packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion compared to other groups (p=0.003). In the intraperitoneal group, more patients received operative invasive intervention - either laparotomy or embolization (p=0.025). The intraperitoneal group had the highest mortality, with 13 deaths (11/33, 39%), and the highest early mortality rate (10/13, 76%) in the first 24 hours (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION
Intraperitoneal CE on the CT scan in cases of blunt abdominal trauma is regarded as an indication of a need for invasive intervention (either angiography or laparotomy) and of a higher mortality rate in the first 24 hours. A pelvic cavity CE rquires more aggressive transfusion with pRBC. However, the CT findings themselves showed no significant correlation with overall mortality, morbidity, or hospitalization.
Summary
Injury Characteristics of Self-injury Patients Who Visit the Emergency Department
Young Soo Kwak, Kang Hyun Lee, Hyung Jin Shin, Kyung Hye Park, Han Joo Choi, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):65-70.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Many studies have addressed a psychiatric analysis of self-injury patients who have self-injurious behavior and who have attempted suicide. Few studies on the injury characteristics of self-injury related trauma patients have been conducted. We analyzed the injury characteristics of self-injury patients.
METHODS
A retrospective review of the medical records extracted from the injury surveillance system of Wonju Christian Hospital for the period from August 2006 to February 2008 was conducted. Of the 121 cases extracted, 103 were included in this study. We analyzed the sex ratio, age group, place of injury, injury mechanism, location of injury, management results, injury severity, and relation with drinking.
RESULTS
One hundred three cases were included (sex ratio: 1.06), and the mean age was 33.9+/-14.2 years old. Fifty-six patients (54.4%) were discharged from the emergency department (ED) on the day of injury after primary care, and 9 patients (8.7%) were discharged, because they refused treatment. Seven patients (6.8%) died. Of these, 4 patients (3.9%) died after attempted cardio-pulmonary resuscitation in the ED, 1 patient (1%) was dead on arrival, and 2 patients (1.9%) died after admission. Sixteen patients (15.5%) were admitted to the hospital, including 2 patients (1.9%) needing emergency surgery. Sixteen patients (15.5%) were transferred to other hospitals. Sixty-one cases (59.2%) involved drinking, and 31 (30.1%) did not; for 11 cases (10.7%), the involvement of drinking was unknown. The mean revised trauma score (RTS) was 11.26+/-2.52, and 88 cases (85.4%) hat a RTS of 12. The mean injury severity score (ISS) was 5.80+/-14.56, and 9 (8.7%) severely injured patients had scores of more than 15.
CONCLUSION
Most self-injuries were mild traumas related to drinking and occurred at a young age. Most cases were not so severe, and the patients were discharged from the ED, but some patients needed hospitalization. Other patients had injuries so severe that they died.
Summary
Effectiveness of Simple Trauma Team Activation Criteria on Prognosis of Severe Trauma Patients
Dong Keon Lee, Kang Hyun Lee, Kyoung Chul Cha, Kyoung Hye Park, Han Joo Choi, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):71-76.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The goal of this study was to compare the outcome of the after trauma team (AfterTT) group to the before trauma team (BeforeTT) group.
METHODS
All trauma patients who visited to emergency room (ER) between July 1, 2006 and February 29, 2008 based on trauma registry, with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mmHg or GCS < 9 were included in this study. We compared the amount of packed RBC transfusion, the ER stay time, the ER visit to CT evaluation time, the ER visit to operation time, the length of ICU stay, the length of hospital admission and the survival discharge rate between the AfterTT group and the BeforeTT group. Patients with brain injuries had little chance of survival. Burn patients, who visited the ER 24 hours after injury and patients who were dead on arrival (DOA) were excluded from this study.
RESULTS
Total of 93 patients were included in this study: 42 in the AfterTT group and 51 in the BeforeTT group. The AfterTT group and the Before TT group showed no differences in Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and mean age. The amount of packed RBC transfusion was lower in the AfterTT group, but no statistically significant difference was noted (AfterTT 11+/-11units, BeforeTT 16+/-15units, p=0.136). The ER visit to operation time was shorter in the AfterTT group, but there were no statistically significant difference between the groups (AfterTT 251+/-223 minutes, BeforeTT 486+/-460 minutes, p=0.082). The length of ICU stay was shorter in the AfterTT group, but the difference was not statistically significant (AfterTT 11+/-12 days, Before TT 15+/-30 days, p=0.438). The length of Hospital admission was shorter in the AfterTT group (AfterTT 43+/-37 days, BeforeTT 68+/-70 days, p=0.032), but this difference was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION
Simple Trauma team activation criteria decreased the amount of packed RBC transfusion and the hospital admission duration. Hemodynamic instability (SBP < 90 mmHg) and decreased mental state (GCS <9) are good indices for activating the trauma team.
Summary
Therapeutic Plan for Traumatic Truncal Arterial Injury Associated with Truncal Organ Injury
Choong Hyun Jo, Yong Sik Jung, Wook Hwan Kim, Young Shin Cho, Jung Hwan Ahn, Young Gi Min, Yoon Seok Jung, Sung Hee Kim, Kug Jong Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):77-86.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The appropriate management of traumatic truncal arterial injury is often difficult to determine, particularly if the injury is associated with severe additional truncal lesions. The timing of repair is controversial when patients arrive alive at the hospital. Also, there is an argument about surgery versus stent-graft repair. This study's objective was to evaluate the appropriate method and the timing for treatment in cases of truncal abdominal injury associated with other abdominal lesions.
Methods
The medical records at Ajou University Medical Center were reviewed for an 8-year period from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2008. Twelve consecutive patients, who were diagnosed as having had a traumatic truncal arterial injury, were enrolled in our study. Patients who were dead before arriving at the hospital or were not associated with abdominal organ injury, were excluded. All patients involved were managed by using the ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) guideline. Data on injury site, the timing and treatment method of repair, the overall complications, and the survival rate were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS
Every case showed a severe injury of more than 15 point on the ISS (injury severity score) scale. The male-to-female ratio was 9:3, and patients were 41 years old on the average. Sites of associated organ injury were the lung, spleen, bowel, liver, pelvic bone, kidney, heart, vertebra, pancreas, and diaphragm ordered from high frequency to lower frequency. There were 11 cases of surgery, and one case of conservative treatment. Two of the patients died after surgery for truncal organ injury: one from excessive bleeding after surgery and the other from multiple organ failure. Arterial injuries were diagnosed by using computed tomography in every case and 9 patients were treated by using an angiographic stent-graft repair. There were 3 patients whose vessels were normal on admission. Several weeks later, they were diagnosed as having a truncal arterial injury.
CONCLUSION
In stable rupture of the truncal artery, initial conservative management is safe and allows management of the major associated lesions. Stent grafting of the truncal artery is a valuable therapeutic alternative to surgical repair, especially in patients considered to be a high risk for a conventional horacotomy.
Summary
Age-related Injury Profile in Childhood
Kyung A Ahn, Eun Sook Kim, Kyung Soo Lim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):87-96.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Injuries are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the childhood population worldwide. Thus, this study was down to investigate the type and the severity of injuries according to the age group in childhood.
METHODS
A survey of injury information and a chart review were done on 378 children (257 boys, 121 girls) who visited the Emergency Departments of Asan Medical Center from March 1, 2009, to March 31, 2009. To determine differences in injury mechanism, accident place, injury site, New Injury Severity Score (NISS) and Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), we divided the 378 patients into 4 group: under 1 year, 1 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, and 10 to 15 years.
RESULTS
The mean (+/-SD) age of the study group was 5.1 (+/-4.4) years. Two year olds formed the largest group of injured children, with 77 cases (20.4% of the total). The most common cause of injury in childhood was being hit by an object (26.2%). Falls were frequent in the under-1-year group (22.2%) and slip downs (30.1%) were more frequent in 1-to-4-year group. More than half (53.4%) of the injuries occurred in the home, and the most common places of home-related injuries were the living room (41.1%) and the bedroom (31.2%). The mean (+/-SD) NISS was 1.5 (+/-1.8), and traffic accidents had the highest NISS (2.8+/-5.1). Injuries occurred most frequently during the evening. The peak period was 4:00 PM to 8:00 PM (33.7%).
CONCLUSION
Patterns of childhood injury by age group were considerably different, and less severe and nonhospitalized injuries were common. Thus, need to improve surveillance of a variety of injuries, promote intersectional collaboration, build institutional capacities and mobilize community support and policy as an investment in prevention.
Summary
Severe Traumatic Intraocular Injuries Related to Blowout Fractures
Jae Hoon Shin, Mi Jin Lee, Seong Soo Park, Won Joon Jeong, Yeon Ho You
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):97-102.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Blunt trauma can cause a wide range of ocular injuries. This study was performed to describe the prevalence of severe intraocular injuries (SIOI) and their correlation with the severity of blunt orbital trauma.
METHODS
We retrospectively analyzed 117 eyes of 107 patients with orbital wall fractures who visited the emergency room at Konyang University Hospital from July 2006 to June 2008. Clinical features such as age, sex, causes of injury, revised trauma score (RTS), type of orbital wall fractures were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups: blowout fracture with severe intraocular injuries (SIOI) and blowout fracture without SIOI. We compared the clinical and the injury-related characteristics between two groups and analyzed the SIOS-related factors.
RESULTS
Among the 107 patients (117 eyes) with blowout fractures, 29 (27.1%) patients with 32 eyes (25.6%) had complicated severe intraocular injuries. Retrobulbar hemorrhage (14.5%), hyphema (13.7%), traumatic optic nerve injury (4.3%), and sustained loss of visual acuity (4.3%) were the most common SIOI disorders. A logistic regression analysis revealed that loss of visual acuity (odds ratio = 4.75) and eyeball motility disorder (odds ratio=7.61) were significantly associated with SIOS.
CONCLUSION
We suggest that blowout fracture patients with loss of visual acuity or eyeball motility disorder are mostly likely to have severe intraocular injuries, so they need an ophthalmologic evaluation immediately.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury