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Volume 23(1); June 2010
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Original Articles
Treatment of Reverse Oblique Trochanteric Fracture with Compression Hip Screw
Dong Hui Kim, Sang Hong Lee, Sang Ho Ha, Jae Won You
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):1-5.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To investigate the results of treatment of reverse oblique trochanteric fractures with compression hip screw.
METHODS
We reviewed the results of 12 cases of reverse oblique trochanteric fracture treated with compression hip screw from January 2000 to December 2006 which could be followed up for more than 1 year. The mean follow up period was 26 months (15~40). The mean age was 48 years old. Injury mechanism was composed of 6 cases of traffic accident and 6 cases of fall down. 8 persons were man. We investigated the union time, degree of neck-shaft angle change, amount of sliding of compression hip screw, complications, functional and clinical results.
RESULTS
10 cases were united and the mean union time were 5 months (3~8). The mean neck-shaft angle change was 3.5 degrees (0~12). The amount of sliding of compression hip screw was 8.9 mm (2~24). There were six coxa vara, six leg due to coxa vara shortening, two nonunion, and one superficial infection. Unsatisfactory results of Jensen's social function score and Parker and Palmer's mobility score were studied.
CONCLUSION
The results of treatment of reverse oblique trochanteric fractures with compression hip screw were relatively unsatisfied.
Summary
Current State and Problem of the Transfer of Severely Injured Patients in One Regional Emergency Medical Center
Won Chul Lee, Choong Hyun Jo, Kyoung Won Jung, Young Gi Min, Sang Cheon Choi, Gi Woon Kim, Jung Hwan Ahn, Yong Sik Jung, Sun Ae Hwang, Ji Yong Kim, Kug Jong Lee, Yoon Seok Jung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):6-15.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Trauma is one of the leading causes of death, especially among young people. Life-threatening conditions are very common in multiple-traumatized patients due to concurrent multi-organ injuries. Treating such severely injured patients is time critical. However, in Korea, the transfer of severely injured patients is not uncommon due to the lack of a mature trauma care system. In developed countries, the preventable trauma death rate is very low, but the rate is still very high in Korea. This study's objective was to demonstrate the current serious state in which severely injured patients have to be transferred from a Regional Emergency Medical Center even though it actually serves as a trauma center.
METHODS
Ajou University Medical Center is a tertiary hospital that serves as a trauma center in Gyeonggi-do. The medical records at Ajou University Medical Center for a 1-year period from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. A severely injured patient was defined as a patient who showed more than 15 point on the ISS (injury severity score) scale. We investigated the clinical characteristics of such patients and the causes of transfer.
RESULTS
Out of 81,718 patients who visited the Regional Emergency Medical Center, 19,731 (24.1%) were injured patients. Among them, 108 severely-injured patients were transferred from one Regional Emergency Medical Center to other hospitals. The male-to-female ratio was about 3.5:1, and the mean ISS was 23.08. The most common mechanism of injury was traffic accidents (41.7%). A major cause of transfer was the shortage of intensive care units (44.4%); another was for emergent operation (27.8%). Most of the hospitals that received the severely-injured patients were secondary hospitals (86.1%).
CONCLUSION
Although the Regional Emergency Medical Center played a role as a trauma center, actually, severely-injured patients had to be transferred to other hospitals for several reasons. Most reasons were related with the deficiencies in the trauma care system. If a mature trauma care system is well-organized, the numbers of transfer of severely injured patients will be reduced significantly.
Summary
Efficiency of Embolization for Kidney Injury
Young Kee Kwon, Hyuk Soo Chang, Byung Hoon Kim, Choal Hee Park, Chun Il Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):16-20.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
High-grade (III, IV, V) renal injury may need interventional management. We investigated whether the selective embolization of the renal artery is effective for the treatment of major renal injury in comparison with emergency renal exploration.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical and radiologic records of patients who underwent surgery or embolization for renal injury (Grade III, IV, V) between January 1990 and December 2007. We analyzed the change in treatment method before and after 2000, the blood pressure, the hemoglobin at the time of visit, the hospital days and the complications in patients who received surgery or embolization. Preserved renal functions of the embolized kidneys were identified by using enhanced CT.
RESULTS
Cases of surgery and embolization were 37 and 13, respectively: 5 and 4 in renal injury grade III, 17 and 6 in grade IV and 13 and 3 in grade V. Cases of surgery and embolization were 33 and 1 before 2000 and 2 and 12 after 2000, repectively: embolizations increased after 2000. No significant differences in mean diastolic pressure, hemoglobin, hospital days and complications existed between the surgery and the embolization groups (p>0.05). However, the transfusion volume was significantly smaller in the embolization group (p<0.05). One postoperative complication occurred in the surgery group. We identified the preserved renal functions of the embolized kidney by using enhanced CT.
CONCLUSION
Embolization could be one treatment method for high-grade renal injury. Thus, we might suggest selective embolization a useful method for preserving the renal function in cases of high-grade renal injury.
Summary
Clinical Evaluation of Abdominal Stab Wound Patients in the ED
Jong Hak Park, Jung Youn Kim, Jun Hyun Shin, Young Hoon Yoon, Han Jin Cho, Sung Woo Moon, Sung Hyuk Choi, Sung Woo Lee, Yun Sik Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):21-28.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In Korea, most abdominal penetrating wounds are caused by stab wounds rather than gun-shot wounds. However, not many studies have been performed on stab injuries and their epidemiologic characteristics. Disagreements of opinions of obligatory surgical exploration and conservative treatment exist, and this subject is still being debated. Therefore, the authors studied the epidemiologic characteristics of abdominal stab wound patients visiting the emergency department and reviewed the proportion of patients that received non-therapeutic surgery and conservative treatment.
METHODS
This study included patients visiting the emergency department with abdominal stab wounds. A retrospective chart review was done on the abdominal stab wound patients. Sex, age, cause of injury, location of wound, initial vital signs, operation results, injured organs and CT & LWE results were reviewed.
RESULTS
The median age of the 121 patients was 40.9 years, of these patients, 88 were males, of which 52 (43.0%) were drunken. Of the patients that received non-therapeutic operations, only 3 patients (15.0%) were drunken, significantly lower than the therapeutic operation group. For the location of the wound, most patients were injured in the right and left upper quadrants, 27 patients each. The most common injured organ was the small bowel; 13 patients were injured in the small bowel. With abdominal CT scans and local wound explorations together, the results exhibited a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 44%, a positive predictive value of 56%, and a negative predictive value of 95%.
CONCLUSION
In our study, the sensitivity was 97% when CT & LWE were performed together; thus we can conclude that CT and LWE can be used together to select the treatment method. Although in our study, the surgical indications in abdominal stab wound patients is not sufficient, our results showed a higher rate of non-therapeutic surgery compared to previous studies. Therefore, more research is needed to prevent unnecessary laparotomies in hemodynamically-stable patients without symptoms.
Summary
Indications for Computed Tomography (CT) to Detect Renal Injury in Pediatric Blunt Abdominal Trauma Patients with Microscopic Hematuria
Cheolgon Go, Hye Jin Kim, Sukjin Cho, Sung Chan Oh, Sang Lae Lee, Seok Yong Ryu
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):29-37.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Controversy exists regarding whether pediatric blunt abdominal trauma patients with microscopic hematuria should undergo radiographic evaluation. Adult patients have indications such as shock and deceleration injury. This study was conducted to suggest indications for the use of CT to detect significant renal injury in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma patients with microscopic hematuria.
METHODS
From January 2005 to December 2009, patients less than 18 years of age with blunt abdominal trauma and microscopic hematuria who had undergone CT were included in this retrospective study. We analyzed the correlation between microscopic hematuria, shock, deceleration injury, and American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal injury grade. Patients were divided into two groups: the insignificant renal injury group (AAST grade 1) and the significant renal injury group (AAST grades 2-5). We compared age, gender, mechanism of injury, degree of microscopic hematuria, evidence of shock, presence of deceleration injury, and associated injuries between the two groups. We analyzed the effect of each of the above each factors on renal injury by using a logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS
Forty-three children were included, and the median age was 15 years. Five children had a significant renal injury. No significant differences, except age and microscopic hematuria (more than 30 red blood cells per high power field (RBC/HPF), p = 0.005) existed between the insignificant and the significant injury groups. A positive correlation existed between renal injury and microscopic hematuria (rho = 0.406, p = 0.007), but renal injury was not correlated with shock and deceleration injury. In the multivariate regression analysis, microscopic hematuria was the only factor correlated with renal injury (p = 0.042).
CONCLUSION
If a microscopic hematuria of more than 30 RBC/HPF exists, the use of CT should be considerd, regardless of shock and deceleration injury to detect significant renal injury in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma patients.
Summary
Utility of Brain Computed Tomography in Detecting Fractures of the Temporal Bones Correlated with Patterns of Fracture on High-Resolution Computed Tomography
Bong Seok Kwon, Dong Hyuk Shin, Pil Cho Choi, Sang Kuk Han, Jeong Hun Lee, Hyoung Gon Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):38-42.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The clinical utility of brain computed tomography (CT) in detecting temporal bone fracture is not well established. We performed this study to determine the utility of brain computed tomography (CT) in detecting fractures of the temporal bones in correlation with fracture patterns. We used high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) as the gold standard for diagnosing temporal bone fracture and its pattern.
METHODS
From January 2007 to December 2009, patients who underwent both brain CT and HRCT within 10 days of head trauma were investigated. Among them, 58 cases of temporal bone fracture confirmed by HRCT were finally included. Fracture patterns (transverse or non-transverse, otic capsule sparing or otic capsule violating) were determined by HRCT. Brain CT findings in correlation with fracture patterns were analyzed.
RESULTS
Among 58 confirmed cases of temporal bone fracture by HRCT, 14 cases (24.1%) were not detected by brain CT. Brain CT showed a significantly lower ability to detect temporal bone fracture with transverse component than without transverse component (p=0.020). Moreover, brain CT showed lower ability to detect otic capsule violating pattern than otic capsule sparing pattern (p=0.015). Among the 14 cases of temporal bone fracture that were not detected by brain CT, 4 cases lacked any objective physical findings (facial palsy, hemotympanum, external auditory canal bleeding) suggesting fractures of the temporal bones.
CONCLUSION
Brain CT showed poor ability to detect temporal bone fracture with transverse component and otic capsule violating pattern, which is associated with a poorer clinical outcome than otic capsule sparing pattern. Routine use of HRCT to identify temporal bone fracture is warranted, even in cases without evidence of temporal bone fracture on brain CT scans or any objective physical findings suggestive of temporal bone fracture.
Summary
Use of Angioembolization to Replace Operative Management for Blunt Splenic Injury
Yu jeong Song, Ka Jeong Kim, Sang Ho Jeong, Chi Young Jeong, Young Tae Ju, Eun Jung Jung, Young Joon Lee, Sang Kyung Choi, Woo Song Ha, Soon Tae Park, Soon Chan Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):43-48.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Over the past few decades, the treatment of traumatic splenic injuries has shifted to nonoperative management from surgical intervention. Although some nonoperative management failure have been reported, in most trauma centers, nonoperative management is now believed to be the treatment of choice in hemodynamically stable patients. Then, in this study, we have retrospectively evaluated our experience with traumatic splenic injury.
METHODS
From January 2005 to July 2009, 150 patients with blunt splenic injuries were managed in our hospital. Patients' charts were retrospectively reviewed to analyze their treatment, the patients were grouped according to those who had been admitted before October 2006, defined as the "early group", and those who had been admitted after October 2006, defined as the "late group". After the patients had been divided into two group, physiologic parameters and differences between the treatments were compared.
RESULTS
150 patients were admitted to our hospital with blunt splenic trauma. In late group, both the surgical management rate and the nonoperative management failure rate were lower than they were in the early group.
CONCLUSION
We expect angioembolization to effectively replace surgery for the treatment of selected patients with blunt splenic injury and to result in fewer complications.
Summary
Case Reports
Hemothorax Without Injury of the Pleural Cavity due to Diaphragmatic and Liver Laceration Caused by a Right Upper Anterior Chest Stab Wound
Kyu Seok Cho, Hyo Chul Youn, Jung Heon Kim, Sang Mok Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):49-52.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A hemothorax usually occur, due to injuries to the intercostal and great vessels, pulmonary damage, and sometimes fractured ribs. We report a case in which the hemothorax that occurred, neither intrathoracic injury nor injury to internal thoracic vessels and organs, via lacerated diaphragmatic and liver laceration due to a right upper part of anterior chest stab injury caused by a sharp object. The patient's general conditions gradually worsened, so chest and abdominal computed tomogram were taken. The abdominal computed tomogram revealed diaphragmatic injuries and bleeding from the lacerated liver. We performed an exploratory laparotomy to control the bleeding from the lacerated liver with simple primary sutures. In addition exploration was performed in the right pleural space through the lacerated diaphragm with a thoracoscopic instrument. There were no bleeding foci in the right pleural space, the vessels, or the lung on the thoracoscopic video. Closure of the lacerated diaphragm was achieved with simple, primary sutures. The postoperative course of the patient was uneventful, and the patient was discharged.
Summary
Spontaneously Healed Thyroid Cartilage Fracture with Displacement: Report of a Case
Hyun Ho Ryu, Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(1):53-55.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A thyroid cartilage fracture is a rare entity and can be overlooked easily. Such cases are difficult to diagnose, and assessment and treatment guidelines are difficult to determine. CT of the neck region may be useful when acute airway intervention is not required or when more information regarding the neck's anatomy is required for management decisions. We describe a case of a thyroid cartilage fracture with displacement. In the emergency department (ED), neck CT and fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy were used to assess the status of the patient's (a male) vocal chords immediately. He remained unable to phonate continuously. After an immediate assessment, we decided to use steroid and conservative therapy. The patient had a good recovery and was without symptoms one month after injury. There is no question that early surgical repair of neck injuries affords the best results for airway and voice patency in most cases however, we suspect that surgical repair is not needed in all cases. Early recognition and an accurate therapy plan for a thyroid fracture with displacement are essential. Therefore, the emergency physician's immediate and careful decision based on endoscopy and neck CT is important for the patient's long-term recovery.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury