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Volume 23(2); December 2010
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Original Articles
Characteristics of Stable Pelvic Bone Fractures with Intra-abdominal Solid Organ Injury
Sang June Park, Sun Hyu Kim, Jong Hwa Lee, Ryeok Ahn, Eun Seog Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):57-62.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study analyzed the characteristics of stable pelvic bone fractures with intra-abdominal solid organ injury.
METHODS
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed from January 2000 to December 2009 of patients with stable pelvic bone fractures. A stable pelvic bone fracture according to Young's classification is defined as a lateral compression type I and antero-posterior compression type I. Subjects were divided into two groups, one with (injured group) and one without (non-injured group) intra-abdominal solid organ injury, to evaluate the dependences of the characteristics on the presence of an intra-abdominal solid organ injury. Data including demographics, mechanism of injury, initial hemodynamic status, laboratory results, Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), amount of transfusion, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and mortality were analyzed.
RESULTS
The subjects were 128 patients with a mean age of 42 years old, of whom were 67 male patients (52.3%). The injured group had 21 patients(16.4%), and the most frequent injured solid organ was the liver. Traffic accident was the most common mechanism of injury and lateral compression was the most common type of fracture in all groups. Initial systolic blood pressure was lower in the injured group, and the ISS was greater in the injured group. Arterial pH was lower in the injured group, and shock within 24 hours after arrival at the emergency department was more frequent in the injured group. Transfused packed red blood cells within 24 hours were 8 patients(38.1%) in the injured group and 11 patients(10.3%) in the non-injured group. Conservative treatment was the most common therapeutic modality in all groups. Stay in the ICU was longer in the injured group, and three mortalities occurred.
CONCLUSION
There is a need to decide on a diagnostic and therapeutic plan regarding the possibility of intra-abdominal solid organ injury for hemodynamically unstable patients with stable pelvic bone fractures and for patients with stable pelvic bone fractures along with multiple associated injuries.
Summary
Needle Decompression for Trauma Patients: Chest Wall Thickness and Size of the Needle
Jeewan Kim, Jinwoo Jeong, Suck Ju Cho, Seokran Yeom, Sang Kyoon Han, Sungwook Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):63-67.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A tension pneumothorax is a fatal condition that requires immediate intervention. Although a definitive treatment for a tension pneumothorax is a tube thoracostomy, needle decompression can provide temporary relief, that is lifesaving. The traditional procedure for needle decompression involves inserting a needle or catheter at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line. Recent evidence suggests that the commonly used catheters do not have sufficiently penetrate the chest wall. There are also claims that a lateral approach to needle decompression is easier and safer than the traditional anterior approach. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimal approach for needle decompression for the Korean population by measuring chest wall thicknesses at the points used for both the anterior and the lateral approaches.
METHODS
The chest wall thickness (CWT) of trauma victims who visited the Emergency Center of Pusan National University Hospital was measured by computed tomography (CT) images. The CWT was measured at the points used for the anterior and the lateral methods and was compared with the length of commonly used catheters, which is 45 mm.
RESULTS
The mean CWT at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line, was shorter than the CWT at the 5th intercostal space, the anterior axillary line. However, the percentage of patients whose CWT was greater than 45 mm was larger when measured anteriorly (8.2%) that when measure laterally (5.7%). Female patients and those older than 60 were more likely to have an anterior CWT greater than 45 mm (28.2% for females and 15.5% for those older than 60).
CONCLUSION
The percentage of trauma victims in Korea whose CWT is greater than 45 mm is lower than the values previously reported by other countries. However, females and older patients tend to have thicker chest walls, so the lateral approach would be suggested when performing needle decompression for such patients with suspected tension pneumothoraces.
Summary
Analysis of the Risk Factors Influencing the Severity of Injury in Pediatric Multiple Trauma Patients
Gang Wook Lee, Sun Pyo Kim, Seong Jung Kim, Soo Hyung Cho, Nam Soo Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):68-74.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study is, first, to analyze the risk factors that influence the severity of injury in pediatric multiple trauma patients and, second, to present solutions for the problems related to the treatment of such patients. Our living situations are so complicated that the danger of accidents is truly open to children who are not prepared. We need to draw attention to the increased numbers of various accidents involving children.
METHODS
We studied patients who visited the Emergency Medical Center at Chosun University Hospital from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2008. Using medical records, we evaluated the general characteristics: the mechanism of injury, the vital signs, the revised trauma score (RTS), the injury severity score (ISS), and the hemoglibin value, which was checked at the time of visit, and the presence or the absence of emergent on regular surgery. We divided the level of injury as follows: light level (1-8 points), mid level (9-15 points), and serious level (above 16 points). We analyzed the medical data by using SPSS 17.0 for windows.
RESULTS
The average age of the patients examined was 8.6 years. The number of 6- to 11-year-old patients was 96, which was the largest, but the degree of injury severity was the highest among infant (0-2 years), according to ISS 7.95(+/-6.85). The frequency of accidents was highest on sunny days, and most accidents occurred from 16:00 to 20:00. The cause of multiple trauma for children was the greatest in the traffic accident, (95 patients, 49.0%). In addition, the trauma caused by traffic accidents showed the highest ISS value (9.02+/-6.42) and the most serious degree (P=0.004). The ISS level of injury (8.40+/-6.64) for patients moved from a secondary hospital was higher than that (6.49+/-5.57) for patients who visited the medical center directly. The severity of injury was highest for patients who used a 119 ambulance (8.84+/-5.80). According to the injured parts of body, Injuries to the arms and the feet most frequent (79 patients, 40.7%), but the level of injury was the highest for internal organs and chest, 16.42+/-8.56 and 11.23+/-6.97, respectively.
CONCLUSION
We used Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in order to examine the characteristics by injured body part for pediatric multiple trauma patients. Because the degree of injury was the highest for internal organs or the chest, we need to more seriously examine and provide for patients who are suspected of having injuries to the internal organs or the chest. We need to quickly determine the need for surgery in patients with serious injuries to the arms and the feet, which is the greatest in frequency. In particular, we need to consider the surgical care of patients who are not very high in the severity of injury to their brains.
Summary
Early Traumatic Deaths
Seung Won Paik, Chul Han, Yun Sik Hong, Sung Hyuk Choi, Sung Woo Lee, Sung Woo Moon, Young Hoon Yoon, Woo Sung Yu, Duk Hwan Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):75-82.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In Korea, trauma is the 3rd most common cause of death. The trauma treatment system is divided into pre-hospital and hospital stages. Deaths occurring in the pre-hospital stage are 50% of the total death, and 20% of those are deaths that are preventable. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to calculate the preventable death rates caused by trauma in our current pre-hospital system, to analyze the appropriateness of the treatment of traumatized patients and to draw a conclusions about the problems we have.
METHODS
The study was done on traumatized patients who expired at the emergency department from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009, at the Korea University Medical Centers in Anam, Guro and Ansan. The data on the patients were reviewed retrospectively based on characteristics, conditions on admission and trauma severity. The patient's RTS (revised trauma score) and ISS (injury severity score) was calculated. Preventable death rate was calculated by TRISS (the trauma score-injury severity score).
RESULTS
A total of 168 patients were enrolled. All patients were intubated and underwent CPR. Of the total, 72% patients were male, and traffic accidents were the most common form of trauma (52.4%), falls being second (28.6%). Head injury, solitary or multiple, was the most common cause of death (55.4%). Thirty-eight (38, 22.6%) deaths were preventable. The 22.6% preventable death rate consisted of 15.5% potentially preventable and 7.1% definitely preventable deaths. Based on a logistic regression analysis, the relationship between the time intervals until transfusion and imaging and death was statistically significant in the hospital stage. In the pre-hospital stage, transit time from the site of the injury to the hospital showed a significant relationship with the mortality rate.
CONCLUSION
One hundred sixty-eight (168) patients died of trauma at the 3 hospitals of Korea University Medical Center. The TRISS method was used to calculate the preventable death rate, with a result of 22.6%. The only factor that was significant related to the preventable death rate in the pre-hospital stage was the time from injury to hospital arrival, and the time intervals until transfusion and imaging were the two factors that showed significance in the hospital stage. Shortening the time of treatment in the field and transferring the patient to the hospital as quickly as possible is the most important life-saving step in the pre-hospital stage. In the hospital stage, the primary survey, resuscitation and diagnosis should proceed simultaneously.
Summary
Comparison of Compliance, Time Required for Diagnosis and Pain of Patients with Finger Tendon Injury Between Gross and Ultrasonographic Confirmation
Seo Woo Lee, Hyun Jae Park, Jung Won Lee, Sae Hoon Park, Jae Woo Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):83-88.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
It is not always easy to determine the existence of tendon injuries when it comes to patients with finger lacerations. Thus, we tried to find the difference in effectiveness and in compliance of patients when we employed two different types of diagnosis, conventional gross confirmation and ultrasonographic confirmation.
METHODS
From December 2009 to March 2010, we enrolled 14 patients with finger tendon injury at Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital. The median age of the patients was 35.9+/-14.4, and the ratio of females to males was 1:2.5 We evaluated the compliance of each patient by measuring four different categories (level of cooperativeness in showing their wound and in following the instructions, level of movement of their fingers during the diagnosis and total number of attempts to diagnose) by using a score from 1 to 3 for each category, for a total possible score of 12 for each patient. We also measured the painfulness of each patient by using a score of 1 to 10 and the time required for each diagnosis.
RESULTS
The levels of patients' compliance was 8.9+/-2.1 when diagnosed with gross confirmation and 9.8+/-2.1 when diagnosed with ultrasonographic confirmation (p value=0.042). The pain score of the patients was 3.7+/-1.7 with gross confirmation and 2.9+/-1.2 with ultrasonographic confirmation (p value=0.020). The median duration of time in each test was 6.7+/-4.8 minutes with gross confirmation and 10.5+/-4.2 minutes with ultrasonography (p value=0.006).
CONCLUSION
Comparing gross confirmation and ultrasonographic confirmation, gross confirmation is a better method than ultrasonography because of time efficiency. However, ultrasonographic confirmation has advantages over gross confirmation in pain scale and better compliance of patients. Emergency physicians generally employ gross confirmation rather than ultrasonography in determining the existence of tendon injury in patients. In patients with finger lacerations without bone injury, ultrasonography can be considered as a secondary diagnostic tool, especially when patients have much pain.
Summary
Necessity for a Whole-body CT Scan in Alert Blunt Multiple Trauma Patients
You Ho Mun, Yun Jeong Kim, Soo Jeong Shin, Dong Chan Park, Sin Ryul Park, Hyun Wook Ryu, Kang Suk Seo, Jung Bae Park, Jae Myung Chung, Ji Hye Bae
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):89-95.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Whole-body CT is a very attractive diagnostic tool to clinicians, especially, in trauma. It is generally accepted that trauma patients who are not alert require whole-body CT. However, in alert trauma patients, the usefulness is questionable.
METHODS
This study was a retrospective review of the medical records of 146 patients with blunt multiple trauma who underwent whole body CT scanning for a trauma workup from March 1, 2008 to February 28, 2009. We classified the patients into two groups by patients' mental status (alert group: 110 patients, not-alert group: 36 patients). In the alert group, we compared the patients' evidence of injury (present illness, physical examination, neurological examination) with the CT findings.
RESULTS
One hundred forty six(146) patients underwent whole-body CT. The mean age was 44.6+/-18.9 years. One hundred four (104, 71.2%) were men, and the injury severity score was 14.0+/-10.38. In the not-alert group, the ratios of abnormal CT findings were relatively high: head 23/36(63.9%), neck 3/6(50.0%), chest 16/36(44.4%) and abdomen 9/36(25%). In the alert group, patients with no evidence of injury were rare (head 1, chest 6 and abdomen 2). Nine(9) patients did not need any intervention or surgery.
CONCLUSION
Whole-body CT has various disadvantages, such as radiation, contrast induced nephropathy and high medical costs. In multiple trauma patients, if they are alert and have no evidence of injury, they rarely have abnormal CT findings, and mostly do not need invasive treatment. Therefore, we should be cautious in performing whole-body CT in alert multiple trauma patients.
Summary
Fall-Down Injuries in children in Treated at the Emergency Department; Preventable Aspects
Sun Deok Kim, Si Young Jung, Koo Young Jung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):96-101.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of children with fall-down injuries according to age groups and to analyze the major trauma groups that were treated at the emergency room (ER).
METHODS
Among 1,222 children under age 6 who were treated at the ER from January 2008 to December 2009, a retrospective study was conducted through examination of medical records. The children were classified by age into 3 groups: infant, toddler, and pre-schooler. In each group, the differences between the causative factors that led to the fall-down injuries were analyzed. Also, ISS (Injury Severity Score) score above 4 was classified as major trauma, and an ISS score 0-1 was classified as a minor trauma. The relationship between major trauma and age group was also analyzed.
RESULTS
Through an analysis of child fall-down injuries, men (56.6%), toddler (47.3%), head-related symptoms (72.9%), furniture-related traumas (80.2%), and falls from less than a 1-m height (69.9%) were found to be common factors. Furthermore, in radiological studies, fractures and brain hemorrhages accounted for 16.9% of major traumas, and simple skull fractures were the most common (21.4%). Distributed according to age group, the factors relevant to fall injuries were fall height and head-related symptoms for infants, accident site, fall height and head-related symptoms for toddlers, and accident site for pre-schoolers (p<0.05). Also, head-related symptoms and fall height were independent factors of major trauma in all age groups. However, major traumas (17.3%) were related to dumped trauma, fall height and accident site (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
This study was mainly about head-related injuries, and toddler were most common victims. The relevant factors for the major trauma were falling height for infants, accident site and falling height for toddlers, and accident site, falling height for pre-schoolers.
Summary
Difference in Management Between Native Koreans and Foreigners with Penetrating Wounds In the Emergency Room
Yong Kwan Kim, Yong Soo Jang, Gu Hyun Kang, Jung Tae Choi, Hoo Jeon, Jin Ho Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):102-106.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
With the increasing numbers of foreign residents in Korea, the need for an emergency medical care system for foreign patients seems to be growing. Sometimes, a foreigner admitted to an emergency room is not treated sufficiently due to the absence of insurance, facility in the Korean language, and a guardian. The management of a foreigner with trauma in the ER is difficult due to various problems such as social and economic status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current management status of foreigners with penetrating wounds in the emergency room.
METHODS
This study is an analysis of 580 patients that were diagnosed with penetrating wounds in one teaching Hospital from Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2008. We analyzed results according to nationality, alcohol ingestion, intentional or accidental trauma, trauma mechanism, injury severity, management time in the ER, and outcome in the ER.
RESULTS
Of the total 580 patients, 486 patients (83.8%) were native Koreans and 94 patients (16.2%) were foreigners. According to the Revised Trauma Score, the average score of native Korean patients was 7.808, and the average score of foreign patients was 7.638. Of native Korean patients, 22.6% had knife wounds while 38.3% of foreign patients did. Of native Korean patients, 17.3% experienced intentional trauma while 33.0% of the foreign patients did. Of native Korean patients, 22.5% had ingested alcohol while 49.4% of the foreigners had. Of native Korean patients, 10.5% were admitted while 7.6% of the foreign patients were. Of native Korean patients, 14.2% were discharged against medical advice (DAMA), while 18.5% of foreign patients were. Of native Korean patients, 1.2% ran away while 8.7% of the foreign patients did.
CONCLUSION
Stabbing was the most common cause of penetrating wounds in foreigner patients in this study. Intentional trauma was more common in foreigners with penetrating wounds than in native Koreans. The severity was higher in foreigners with penetrating wounds than it was in native Koreans, and patients who ran away or were discharged against medical advice were more commonly foreigners with penetrating wounds. Social insurance or policy is needed for the management of foreigners with penetrating wounds.
Summary
Clinical Analysis of Patients with Abdomen or Neck-penetrating Trauma
Ha Ny Noh, Kwang Min Kim, Joon Beom Park, Hoon Ryu, Keum Seok Bae, Seong Joon Kang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):107-112.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Recently, the change to a more complex social structure has led to an increased frequency of traumas due to violence, accident and so on. In addition, the severity of the traumas and the frequency of penetrating injuries have also increased. Traumas to cervical and abdominal areas, what are commonly seen by general surgeons, can have mild to fatal consequences because in these areas, various organs that are vital to sustaining life are located. The exact location and characteristics of the injury are vital to treating patients with the trauma to these areas. Thus, with this background in mind, we studied, compared, and analyzed clinical manifestations of patients who were admitted to Wonju Christian hospital for penetrating injuries inflicted by themselves or others.
METHODS
We selected and performed a retrospective study of 64 patients who had been admitted to Wonju Christian Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009 and who had cervical or abdominal penetrating injuries clearly inflicted by themselves or others.
RESULTS
There were 51 male (79.7%) and 13 female (20.3%) patients, and the number of male patients was more dominant in this study, having a sex ratio of 3.9 to 1. The range of ages was between 20 and 86 years, and mean age was 43.2 years. There were 5 self-inflicted cervical injuries, and 19 self-inflicted abdominal injuries, making the total number of self-inflicted injury 24. Cervical and abdominal injuries caused by others were found in 11 and 29 patients, respectively. The most common area involved in self-inflicted injuries to the abdomen was the epigastric area, nine cases, and the right-side zone II was the most commonly involved area. On the other hand, in injuries inflicted by others, the left upper quadrant of the abdomen was the most common site of the injury, 14 cases. In the neck, the left-side zone II was the most injured site. In cases of self-inflicted neck injury, jugular vein damage and cervical muscle damage without deep organ injury were observed in two cases each, making them the most common. In cases with abdominal injuries, seven cases had limited abdominal wall injury, making it the most common injury. The most common deep organ injury was small bowel wounds, five cases. In patients with injuries caused by others, six had cervical muscle damage, making it the most common injury found in that area. In the abdomen, small bowel injury was found to be the most common injury, being evidenced in 13 cases. In self-inflicted injuries, a statistical analysis discovered that the total duration of admission and the number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit were significantly shorter and smaller, retrospectively, than in the patient group that had injuries caused by others. No statistically significant difference was found when the injury sequels were compared between the self-inflicted-injury and the injury-inflicted-by-others groups.
CONCLUSION
This study revealed that, in self-inflicted abdominal injuries, injuries limited to the abdominal wall were found to be the most common, and in injuries to the cervical area inflicted by others, injuries restricted to the cervical muscle were found to be the most common. As a whole, the total duration of admission and the ICU admission time were significantly shorter in cases of self-inflicted injury. Especially, in cases of self inflicted injuries, abdominal injuries generally had a limited degree of injury. Thus, in our consideration, accurate injury assessment and an ideal treatment plan are necessary to treat these patients, and minimally invasive equipment, such as laparoscope, should be used. Also, further studies that persistently utilize aggressive surgical observations, such as abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography, for patients with penetrating injuries are needed.
Summary
Factors Affecting the Delay of a Decision to Admit Severe Trauma Patients and the Effect of a Multidisciplinary Department System: a Preliminary Study
Mun Ju Kang, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Hyoung Gon Song
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):113-118.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Prolonged stay in the emergency department (ED), which is closely related with the time interval from the ED visit to a decision to admit, might be associated with poor outcomes for trauma patients and with overcrowding of the ED. Therefore, we examined the factors affecting the delay in the decision to admit severe trauma patients. Also, a multidisciplinary department system was preliminarily evaluated to see if it could reduce the time from triage to the admission decision.
METHODS
A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital without a specialized trauma team or specialized trauma surgeons from January 2009 to March 2010. Severe trauma patients with an International Classification of Disease Based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) below 0.9 were included. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to find independent variables associated with a delay in the decision for admission which was defined as the time interval between ED arrival and admission decision exceeded 4 hours. We also simulated the time from triage to the decision for admission by a multidisciplinary department system.
RESULTS
A total of 89 patients were enrolled. The average time from triage to the admission decision was 5.2+/-7.1 hours and the average length of the ED stay was 9.0+/-11.5 hours. The rate of decision delay for admission was 31.5%. A multivariable regression analysis revealed that multiple trauma (odds ratio [OR]: 30.6, 95%; confidence interval [CI]: 3.18-294.71), emergency operation (OR: 0.55, 95%; CI: 0.01-0.96), and treatment in the Department of Neurosurgery (OR: 0.07, 95%; CI: 0.01-0.78) were significantly associated with the decision delay. In a simulation based on a multidisciplinary department system, the virtual time from triage to admission decision was 2.1+/-1.5 hours.
CONCLUSION
In the ED, patients with severe trauma, multiple trauma was a significant factor causing a delay in the admission decision. On the other hand, emergency operation and treatment in Department of Neurosurgery were negatively associated with the delay. The simulated time from triage to the decision for admission by a multidisciplinary department system was 3 hours shorter than the real one.
Summary
Original article
The Effect of Six Sigma Activity in Major Trauma Patients on the Time Spent in the Emergency Department
Hyun Soo Kim, Ok Jun Kim, Sung Wook Choi, Eui Chung Kim, Young Tae Park, Tae I Ko, Yun Kyung Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):119-127.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to shorten the time spent at each stage of treatment and to reduce the total amount of time patients spend in the emergency department (ED) by applying Six Sigma in the treatment of major trauma patients.
METHODS
This is a comparative study encompassing 60 patients presenting to the ED of Bundang CHA Hospital from January 2008 to December 2008 and from July 2009 to March 2010. The stages of treatment for major trauma patients were divided into six categories (T1: total emergency department staying time, T2: duration of visit-radiologic evaluation time, T3: duration of visit-consult to department of admission, T4: duration of consultation-issue of hospital admissions time, T5: duration of visit-issue of hospital admissions time, T6: duration of issue of hospital admission-emergency department discharge time) and the total time patients spent in the ED was compared and analyzed for periods; before and after the application of Six Sigma.
RESULTS
After the application of Six Sigma, the numerical values in four of the six categories were significantly reduced; T2, T3, T4, and T5. However, the average of the total time patients spent in the ED did not show any remarkable change because the T6 increased highly. The level of Six Sigma increased 0.17sigma.
CONCLUSION
The application of Six Sigma for major trauma patients in the ED resulted in a significant improvement in the error rate for the total time patients spent in the ED. The Six Sigma activity has shown great potential. Therefore, the project is expected to bring better results in every stage of treatment if the levels of the hospital facilities are improved.
Summary
Original Articles
Comparison of Injuries Related with All-Terrian Vehicles (ATVs) and Motorcycles (MCs)
Nam Ho Kim, Myung Deok Kim, Tae Hun Lee, Moo Eob Ahn, Jung Yeol Seo, Jae Sung Lee, Dong Won Kim, Jung Ryul Lee, Sang Heon Park, Yu min Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):128-133.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
All-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related injuries have increased since the introduction of ATVs to Korea. The purpose of this study is to compare patients with ATV-related injuries (PATV) to patients with motorcycle (MC)-related injuries (PMC).
METHODS
We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of PATV and PMC who visited an emergency center in 2008. The cases of PMC were 164, and those of PATV were 52.
RESULTS
While PMC are seen evenly in the first half year and the second half year, PATV are seen mainly the first half year (from March to June: 73%). For PMC the most frequent injury mechanism was collision with another vehicle, while for PATV, it was side overturn/roll over. The injury severity score (ISS), the revised trauma score (RTS), the trauma score and the injury severity score (TRISS) were 5.6+/-5.6, 7.7+/-0.7, 5.0+/-2.1 for PMC and 7.1+/-7.5, 7.7+/-1.1, 5.5+/-1.5 for PATV, respectively. The most common injury sites were the lower extremities for PMC and the face for PATV. The rates of admission, surgery and the length of hospital stay were similar between PMC and PATV.
CONCLUSION
This study shows that the risk of ATV accidents is similar to that of MC accidents. We recommend that the same safety standards and regulations that are applied to MCs should be used for ATVs. Safe and enjoyable paths have to be sought for drivers of ATVs.
Summary
A Clinical Analysis of Abdominal Stab Wounds
Jiyeon Park, Min Chung, Yeongdon Lee, Jungnam Lee, Woonki Lee, Yeonho Park, Jungheum Baek, Heunggyu Park, Keonkuk Kim, Jinmo Kang, Sangtae Choi, Wonsuk Lee, Seungyoun Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):134-141.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A classic approach to abdominal stab wounds has been a routine laparotomy for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment. However, management protocols for abdominal stab wounds are still contentious in most trauma centers. We examined the relationship between the character of the stab wound and the injured intraabdominal organs by retrospectively analyzing the medical records of patients with abdominal stab wounds admitted to Gil hospital, and the findings for our patients are then confronted with a review of the literature. We aimed to propose proper management protocols to approach abdominal stab wounds.
METHODS
The medical records of all 80 patients sustaining abdominal stab wounds, admitted at the Department of Surgery, Gil Hospital, Gachon Medical School, from January 2004 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All the abdominal stab wounds were collated based on the site and the character of the injury, investigations performed on admission, results of investigations, operations performed and findings at the time of the operation.
RESULTS
The most prevalent age group was patients in their forties and the average age of the patients was 41 years for both genders. The stab wounds were most commonly located at the periumbilical area (16.9%), followed by the epigastric area (15.6%), and 18.2% of the patients had multiple wounds. The most commonly eviscerated organ was the omentum (9 out of 16 cases); 61.7% of non-eviscerated patients underwent a therapeutic laparotomy while 81.3% of eviscerated patients underwent a therapeutic laparotomy. The small bowel was the most commonly injured organ (22.7%, 17 out of 75 injuries). The review revealed a relatively common diaphragmatic injury in abdominal stab wound patients (8 cases, 10.5%). The average hospital stay was 11 days.
CONCLUSION
This review revealed commonly eviscerated and injured intraabdominal organs in abdominal stab wound patients and their relationship with a therapeutic laparotomy. Although the management is still controversial, the authors suggest indications for an immediate laparotomy and a protocol for managing abdominal stab wounds. Hemodynamic instability and peritoneal irritation signs are definite indicators for an immediate laparotomy, but the review revealed intraabdominal organ evisceration alone not to be a statistically significant factor. In addition, the authors suggest that abnormal CT findings can be valuable for making a decision on management of hemodynamically stable stab wound patients. Further study may clarify a role for a more selective approach to operative intervention and for a more extensive use of selective observation.
Summary
Risk factors related to progressive traumatic intracerebral hematomas in the early post head injury period
Young Bae Lee, Hwee Soo Jeong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):142-150.
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PURPOSE
In this study, patients in whom two computed tomography (CT) scans had been obtained within 24 hours of injury were analyzed to determine the incidence, risk factors and clinical significance of a progressive intracerebral hematoma (PIH).
METHODS
Participants were 182 patients with a traumatic intracerebral hematoma and contusion who underwent a repeat CT scan within 24 hours of injury. Univarite and multivariate statistics were used to define growth (volume increase) and to examine the relationship between the risk factors and hemorrhage expansion.
RESULTS
Fifty-four percent of the patients experienced progression in the size of the lesion in the initial 24 hours postinjury. A PIH was independently associated with worsened Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score (2.99, 1.04~8.60), the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (6.29, 2.48~16.00), the presence of a subdural hematoma (6.18, 2.13~17.98), the presence of an epidural hematoma (5.73, 1.18~27.76), and the presence of a basal cistern effacement (10.93, 1.19~99.57).
CONCLUSION
For patients undergoing scanning within 2 hours of injury, the rate of PIH approaches 61%. Early repeated CT scanning is indicated in patients with a nonsurgically-treated hemorrhage revealed on the first CT scan. Worsened GCS score, significant hematoma growth and effacement of the basal cisterns on the initial CT scan are powerful predictors of which patients will require surgery. These findings should be important factors in understanding and managing of PIH.
Summary
The Utility of Liver Transaminase as a Predictor of Liver Injury in Blunt Abdominal Trauma
Jong Seok Lee, Sung Chan Oh, Hye Jin Kim, Suk Jin Cho, Sang Lae Lee, Seok Yong Ryu
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):151-156.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The liver is the second most common organ injured by blunt abdominal trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of liver transaminase in screening blunt abdominal trauma patients for traumatic liver injury.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 231 patients who sustained blunt trauma and were at risk for traumatic liver injury between June 2009 and August 2010. All of them underwent a focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and abdominal computed tomography (CT). Based on the diagnosis of abdominal CT, patients were divided into two groups: group I with liver injury and group II without liver injury. We compared the two groups and calculated the sensitivity, the specificity and the predictive values of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by using multiple cutoff values.
RESULTS
Of 231 patients with no abdominal free fluid in the FAST, 33 had traumatic liver injury on abdominal CT. The mean AST and ALT levels in group I (311.6 IU/L and 228.1 IU/L, respectively) were significantly higher than the values in group II (48.4 IU/L and 35.6 IU/L, respectively). The cutoff to distinguish liver injury is 60 IU/L for AST and 58 IU/L for ALT, with 93.8% sensitivity and 79.8% specificity for AST, and 90.6% sensitivity and 87.4% specificity for ALT.
CONCLUSION
We recommend that all patient with suspected blunt abdominal trauma be evaluated using serum liver transaminase as a screening test for liver injury even though no abdominal free fluid is shown on the FAST. If AST > 60 IU/L and/or ALT > 58 IU/L, abdominal CT was useful to confirm liver injury in this study
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury