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16 "Hyun Min Cho"
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Original Article
Clinical characteristics of patients with the hardware failure after surgical stabilization of rib fractures in Korea: a case series
Na Hyeon Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hohyun Kim, Gil Hwan Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):196-205.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0026
  • 1,926 View
  • 57 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) is widely used in patients with flail chests, and several studies have reported the efficacy of SSRF even in multiple rib fractures. However, few reports have discussed the hardware failure (HF) of implanted plates. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with HF after SSRF and further investigate the related factors.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent SSRF for multiple rib fractures at a level I trauma center in Korea between January 2014 and January 2021. We defined HF as the unintentional loosening of screws, dislocation, or breakage of the implanted plates. The baseline characteristics, surgical outcomes, and types of HF were assessed.
Results
During the study period, 728 patients underwent SSRF, of whom 80 (10.9%) were diagnosed with HF. The mean age of HF patients was 56.5±13.6 years, and 66 (82.5%) were men. There were 59 cases (73.8%) of screw loosening, 21 (26.3%) of plate breakage, 17 (21.3%) of screw migration, and seven (8.8%) of plate dislocation. Nine patients (11.3%) experienced wound infection, and 35 patients (43.8%) experienced chronic pain. A total of 21 patients (26.3%) underwent reoperation for plate removal. The patients in the reoperation group were significantly younger, had fewer fractures and plates, underwent costal fixation, and had a longer follow-up. There were no significant differences in subjective chest symptoms or lung capacity.
Conclusions
HF after SSRF occurred in 10.9% of the cases, and screw loosening was the most common. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk factors for SSRF failure.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Komplikationen nach operativer vs. konservativer Versorgung des schweren Thoraxtraumas
    Lars Becker, Marcel Dudda, Christof Schreyer
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Report
Celiac Artery Compression After a Spine Fracture, and Pericardium Rupture After Blunt Trauma: A Case Report from a Single Injury
Joongsuck Kim, Hyun Min Cho, Sung Hwan Kim, Seong Hoon Jung, Jeong Eun Sohn, Kwangmin Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):130-135.   Published online June 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0053
  • 3,368 View
  • 70 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Celiac artery compression is a rare condition in which the celiac artery is compressed by the median arcuate ligament. Case reports of compression after trauma are hard to find. Blunt traumatic pericardium rupture is also a rare condition. We report a single patient who experienced both rare conditions from a single blunt injury. An 18-year-old woman was brought to the trauma center after a fatal motorcycle accident, in which she was a passenger. The driver was found dead. Her vital signs were stable, but she complained of mild abdominal pain, chest wall pain, and severe back pain. There were no definite neurologic deficits. Her initial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple rib fractures, moderate lung contusions with hemothorax, moderate liver injury, and severe lumbar spine fracture and dislocation. She was brought to the angiography room to check for active bleeding in the liver, which was not apparent. However, the guide wire was not able to pass through the celiac trunk. A review of the initial CT revealed kinking of the celiac trunk, which was assumed to be due to altered anatomy of the median arcuate ligament caused by spine fractures. Immediate fixation of the vertebrae was performed. During recovery, her hemothorax remained loculated. Suspecting empyema, thoracotomy was performed at 3 weeks after admission, revealing organized hematoma without pus formation, as well as rupture of the pericardium, which was immediately sutured, and decortication was carried out. Five weeks after admission, she had recovered without complications and was discharged home.

Summary
Original Article
Clinical Effects of Intra-Abdominal Pressure in Critically Ill Trauma Patients
Dong Yeon Ryu, Hohyun Kim, June Pill Seok, Chan Kyu Lee, Kwang-Hee Yeo, Seon-Uoo Choi, Jae-Hun Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(2):86-92.   Published online June 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.052
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  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

There is increasing interest in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in critically ill patients. This study investigated the effects and outcomes of elevated IAP in a trauma intensive care unit (ICU) population.

Methods

Eleven consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the trauma ICU at Pusan National University Hospital Regional Trauma Center were included in this study. IAP was measured every 8?12 hours (intermittently) for 72 hours. IAP was registered as mean and maximal values per day throughout the study period. IAH was defined as IAP ≥12 mmHg. Abdominal compartment syndrome was defined as IAP ≥20 mmHg plus ≥1 new organ failure. The main outcome measure was in-hospital mortality.

Results

According to maximal and mean IAP values, 10 (90.9%) of the patients developed IAH during the study period. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was significantly higher in patients with IAP ≥20 mmHg than in those with IAP <20 mmHg (16 vs. 5, p=0.049). The hospital mortality rate was 27.3%. Patients with a maximum IAP ≥20 mmHg exhibited significantly higher hospital mortality rates (p=0.006). Non-survivors had higher maximum and mean IAP values.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that an elevated IAP may be associated with a poor prognosis in critically ill trauma patients.

Summary
Case Report
Iatrogenic Delayed Aortic Injury Following a Surgical Stabilization of Flail Chest
Junepill Seok, Hyun Min Cho, Seon Hee Kim, Ho Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2018;31(3):174-176.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.037
  • 3,025 View
  • 42 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Most of aortic injuries after blunt chest trauma usually occur at the aortic isthmus and are identified in the emergency department soon after arrival. Delayed aortic injures by fractured posterior ribs, however, are relatively rare and have been reported only a few times. We recently experienced an iatrogenic descending aortic injury sustained as a result of a direct puncture by a sharp rib end after surgical stabilization of rib fractures.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Surgical Stabilisation of Traumatic Rib Fractures with Chronic, Residual Type A Aortic Dissection
    Kieran J. Matic, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Selwyn Selvendran
    Healthcare.2021; 9(4): 392.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Clinical Analysis of the Patients with Isolated Low-Velocity Penetrating Neck Injury
Junepill Seok, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2018;31(1):1-5.   Published online April 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.31.1.1
  • 3,838 View
  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Although there has been substantial progress for the treatment of thoracic trauma, the mortality of the penetrating neck injury is still high, has been reported about 10?15%. However, there has not been a report which is reflecting Korean medical present. We retrospectively analyzed the penetrating neck injury patients based on the Korean Trauma Data Base.

Methods

Between December 2013 and June 2017 at the trauma center of the Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea, total of 36 patients with isolated low-velocity penetrating neck injuries were included. We analyzed the patients’ age, gender, injury mechanism and causes by medical chart review.

Results

Among total of 36 patients, 26 (72.2%) were male and 10 (27.8%) were female. Homicidal neck injuries were most common, followed by accidental and suicidal injuries (47% vs. 33% vs. 19%, respectively). All penetrating injuries in our study were low-velocity trauma such as following: knife (n=16, 44.4%); glass or glass bottle (n=11, 30.6%); scissors (n=4, 11.1%); grinder (n=2, 5.6%); and three (8.3%) of miscellaneous injuries. Twenty-seven (75.0%) patients underwent emergency surgery, and only one (2.8%) patient underwent elective surgery. Eleven (30.6) patients were diagnosed with superficial injuries, including six patients who had conservative treatment. Twelve (33.3%) patients had arterial injuries and 10 (27.8%) patients had venous injuries. The patients who had deep injuries showed significant difference against the patient with superficial injury (98.0 vs. 129.1, p=0.008).

Conclusions

Low velocity penetrating injury confined to the neck is able to be successfully treated with prompt surgical management. Regardless of the conditions which are evaluated at emergency department, all penetrating neck injury patients should be regarded as urgent surgical candidates.

Summary
PARK Index and S-score Can Be Good Quality Indicators for the Preventable Mortality in a Single Trauma Center
Chan Yong Park, Kyung Hag Lee, Na Yun Lee, Su Ji Kim, Hyun Min Cho, Chan Kyu Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):126-130.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.126
  • 3,929 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Preventable Trauma Death Rate (PTDR) using Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) has been most widely used as a quality indicator in South Korea. However, this method has a small number of deaths corresponding to the denominator. Therefore, it is difficult to check the change of quality improvement for annual mortality, and there is a disadvantage that variation is severe. Therefore, we attempted to improve the quality of the mortality evaluation by reducing the variation by applying the PARK Index (preventable major trauma death rate, PMTDR) which can increase the number of denominator significantly. And the Save score (S-score) was also examined as another quality indicator.

Methods

In the PARK Index, the denominator is number of all patients who have survival probability (Ps) larger than 0.25. Numerator is the number of deaths among these. The PARK Index includes only patients with ISS >15. The S-score is calculated in the same way as the W-score, but the S-score includes only patients with ISS >15, which is a difference from the W-score.

Results

PARK Index decreased annually and was 12.9 (37/287) in 2014, 9.6 (33/343) in 2015, and 7.3 (52/709) in 2016. S-score increased annually and was ?0.29 in 2014, 4.21 in 2015, and 8.75 in 2016.

Conclusions

PARK Index and S-score improved annually. This shows that both quality indicators are improving year by year. PARK Index (PMTDR) has 9.5-fold increase in denominator overall compared to PTDR by TRISS. The S-score used only ISS >15 patients as a denominator. Therefore, there is an advantage that the numerical value change is larger than the W-score. In addition, S-score is not affected by the ratio of major trauma patients to minor trauma patients.

Summary
Experiences of Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery in Trauma
Dongsub Noh, Chan kyu Lee, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(3):87-90.   Published online October 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.3.87
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Nowadays, Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) is widely used for its benefits, low post-operative pain, excellent anesthetic result and complete visualization of intrathoracic organs. Despite of these advantages, VATS has not yet been widely used in trauma patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of VATS in the chest trauma area.
METHODS
From January 2016 to December 2016, 203 patients underwent surgical treatment for chest trauma. Their medical records were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS
Eleven patients underwent thoracic surgery by VATS. Six patients were unstable vital sign in the emergency room. Two patients underwent emergency surgery and the rest patients underwent planned surgery. The common surgeries were VATS hematoma evacuation and wedge resection. There was no conversion to thoracotomy. The surgery proceeded without any problems for all patients.
CONCLUSIONS
VATS would be an effective diagnostic and therapeutic modality in chest trauma patients. It can be applied to retained hemothorax, persistent pneumothorax, suspicious diaphragm injury and even coagulation of bleeder.
Summary
The Surgical Outcome for Patients with Tracheobronchial Injury in Blunt Group and Penetrating Group
Chang Wan Kim, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho, Jeong Su Cho, Ho Seok I, Yeong Dae Kim, Do Hyung Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2016;29(1):1-7.   Published online March 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2016.29.1.1
  • 2,253 View
  • 29 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Tracheobronchial injuries caused by trauma are rare, but can be life threatening. The objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcome for patients with tracheobronchial injuries and to determine the difference, if any, between the outcomes for patients with penetrating trauma and those for patients with blunt trauma.
METHODS
From January 2010 to June 2015, 40 patients underwent tracheobronchial repair surgery due to trauma. We excluded 14 patients with iatrogenic injuries, and divided the remaining 26 into two groups.
RESULTS
In the blunt trauma group, injury mechanisms were motor vehicle accident (9 cases), free falls (3 cases), flat falls (1 case) and mechanical injury (1 case). In the penetrating trauma group, injury mechanisms were stab wounds (10 cases), a gunshot wound (1 case) and a stab wound caused by metal pieces (1 case). The mean RTS (Revised Trauma Score) was 6.89±1.59 (range: 2.40-7.84) and the mean ISS (Injury Severity Score) was 24.36±7.16 (range: 11-34) in the blunt group; the mean RTS was 7.56±0.41 (range: 7.11-7.84), and the mean ISS was 13±5.26 (range: 9-25) in the penetrating trauma group. In the blunt trauma group, 9 primary repairs, 1 resection with end-end anastomosis, 2 lobectomies, 1 sleeve bronchial resection and 1 pneumonectomy were performed. In the penetrating trauma group, 10 primary repairs and 2 resections with end-end anastomosis were performed. Complications associated with surgery were found in one patient in the blunt trauma group, and one patient in the penetrating trauma group. No mortalities occurred in either groups.
CONCLUSION
Surgical management of a traumatic tracheobronchial injury is a safe procedure for both patients with a penetrating trauma and those with a blunt trauma.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Case of Total Laryngectomy after Severe Penetrating Laryngeal Trauma
    Youngjin Cho, Sung-Chan Shin, Byung-Joo Lee, Yong-Il Cheon
    Journal of Clinical Otolaryngology Head and Neck .2022; 33(4): 250.     CrossRef
  • Damage Control of Laryngotracheal Trauma: The Golden Day
    Mario Alain Herrera, Luis Fernando Tintinago, William Victoria, Carlos Alberto Ordoñez, Michael Parra, Mateo Betancourt-Cajiao, Yaset Caicedo, Monica Guzman, Linda M. Gallego, Adolfo Gonzalez Hadad, Luis Fernando Pino, Jose Julian Serna, Alberto García, C
    Colombia médica.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
PARK Index for Preventable Major Trauma Death Rate
Chan Yong Park, Byungchul Yu, Ho Hyun Kim, Jung Joo Hwang, Jungnam Lee, Hyun Min Cho, Han Na Park
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(3):115-122.   Published online September 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.3.115
  • 2,667 View
  • 14 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To calculate Preventable Trauma Death Rate (PTDR), Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) is the most utilized evaluation index of the trauma centers in South Korea. However, this method may have greater variation due to the small number of the denominator in each trauma center. Therefore, we would like to develop new indicators that can be used easily on quality improvement activities by increasing the denominator.
METHODS
The medical records of 1005 major trauma (ISS >15) patients who visited 2 regional trauma center (A center and B center) in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. PTDR and PARK Index (Preventable Major Trauma Death Rate, PMTDR) were calculated in 731 patients with inclusion criteria. We invented PARK Index to minimize the variation of preventability of trauma death. In PTDR the denominator is all number of deaths, and in PARK Index the denominator is number of all patients who have survival probability (Ps) larger than 0.25. Numerator is the number of deaths from patients who have Ps larger than 0.25.
RESULTS
The size of denominator was 40 in A center, 49 in B center, and overall 89 in PTDR. The size of denominator was significantly increased, and 287 (7.2-fold) in A center, 422 (8.6-fold) in B center, and overall 709 (8.0-fold) in PARK Index. PARK Index was 12.9% in A center, 8.3% in B center, and overall 10.2%.
CONCLUSION
PARK Index is calculated as a rate of mortality from all major trauma patients who have Ps larger than 0.25. PARK Index obtain an effect that denominator is increased 8.0-fold than PTDR. Therefore PARK Index is able to compensate for greater disadvantage of PTDR. PARK Index is expected to be helpful in implementing evaluation of mortality outcome and to be a new index that can be applied to a trauma center quality improvement activity.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Outcomes at Trauma Centers versus Non-Trauma Centers for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
    Tae Seok Jeong, Dae Han Choi, Woo Kyung Kim
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society.2023; 66(1): 63.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Preventable Trauma Death Rates in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury Before and After the Establishment of Regional Trauma Center: A Single Center Experience
    Dae Han Choi, Tae Seok Jeong, Myung Jin Jang
    Korean Journal of Neurotrauma.2023; 19(2): 227.     CrossRef
  • PARK Index and S-score Can Be Good Quality Indicators for the Preventable Mortality in a Single Trauma Center
    Chan Yong Park, Kyung Hag Lee, Na Yun Lee, Su Ji Kim, Hyun Min Cho, Chan Kyu Lee
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2017; 30(4): 126.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Penetrating Neck Trauma: A Case of Spinal Cord Injury by Embedded Scissor
Seon Hee Kim, Sun Woo Choi, Sung Jin Park, Kwang Hee Yeo, Chang Wan Kim, Sang Bong Lee, Ho Hyun Kim, Chan Yong Park, Jae Hun Kim, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(2):71-74.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.2.71
  • 2,887 View
  • 8 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Penetrating neck trauma involving spinal cord injury is relatively uncommon, but can be life-threatening. We report a case of 59-year-old female who presented with hypotension after stab injury self-inflicted with a scissor to her neck. Although Open removal of the scissor and control of bleeding were successfully done, penetration of spinal cord resulted in a neurologic impairment.
Summary
Successful Angiographic Embolization of Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Rupture Caused by Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report
Sang Bong Lee, Sung Jin Park, Kwang Hee Yeo, Ho Hyun Kim, Chan Yong Park, Jae Hun Kim, Chang Wan Kim, Seon Uoo Choi, Seon Hee Kim, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(1):39-42.   Published online March 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.1.39
  • 2,209 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Lat. abdominal wall hematoma with active bleeding is very rare but need prompt bleeding control. We report successful treatment by angiographic embolization of superficial circumflex iliac artery rupture caused by blunt trauma. A 60-year-old woman presented painful, enlarging, lat. abdominal wall mass with ecchymosis caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Contrast leakage of superficial circumflex iliac a. within the lt. ext. oblique m. hematoma was confirmed by abdominal computed tomography. Angiographic embolization was performed successfully. Patient was discharged at 4th day after trauma without complication. Angiographic embolization is important treatment option of lat. abdominal wall hematoma with active bleeding replacing emergency surgery.
Summary
Delayed Aortic Injury Caused by a Posterior Rib Fracture: A Case Report
Chang Wan Kim, Seon Uoo Choi, Seon Hee Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho, Seung Hwan Song, Jeong Su Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(1):31-33.   Published online March 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.1.31
  • 2,072 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traumatic aortic injury is well recognized as a primary cause of instantaneous death in victims of thoracic blunt trauma presenting with an aortic rupture or dissection, particularly after a deceleration injury. However, a direct aortic injury caused by a fractured rib segment after blunt thoracic trauma is extremely rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient who experienced an aortic injury caused by the sharp edge of a fractured rib after multiple rib fractures due to blunt thoracic trauma.
Summary
Cervical Esophageal Perforation after Blunt Trauma
Hyun Min Cho, Young Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):45-47.
  • 1,083 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Esophageal perforation due to blunt trauma is rare. A 67-year-old male presented to Konyang University Hospital with painful neck swelling. His neck was injured by blunt trauma at work. Esophageal perforation was detected by neck CT and esophagography. We performed primary repair of cervical esophagus through the Lt. neck approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged at postoperative day 15.
Summary
Original Articles
Early Surgical Stabilization of Ribs for Severe Multiple Rib Fractures
Jung Joo Hwang, Young Jin Kim, Han Young Ryu, Hyun Min Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):12-17.
  • 1,208 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A rib fracture secondary to blunt thoracic trauma continues to be an important injury with significant complications. Unfortunately, there are no definite treatment guidelines for severe multiple rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of early operative stabilization and to find the risk factors of surgical fixation in patients with bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments.
METHODS
From December 2005 to December 2008, the medical records of all patients who underwent operative stabilization of ribs for severe multiple rib fractures were reviewed. We investigated patients' demographics, preoperative comorbidities, underlying lung disease, chest trauma, other associated injuries, number of surgical rib fixation, combined operations, perioperative ventilator support, and postoperative complications to find the factors affecting the mortality after surgical treatment.
RESULTS
The mean age of the 96 patients who underwent surgical stabilization for bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments was 56.7 years (range: 22 to 82 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1. Among the 96 patients, 16 patients (16.7%) underwent reoperation under general or epidural anesthesia due to remaining fracture with severe displacement. The surgical mortality of severe multiple rib fractures was 8.3% (8/96), 7 of those 8 patients (87.5%) dying from acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis. And the other one patient expired from acute myocardial infarction. The risk factors affecting mortality were liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant severe head or abdominal injuries, perioperative ventilator care, postoperative bleeding or pneumonia, and tracheostomy. However, age, number of fractured ribs, lung parenchymal injury, pulmonary contusion and combined operations were not significantly related to mortality.
CONCLUSION
In the present study, surgical fixation of ribs could be carried out as a first-line therapeutic option for bilateral rib fractures or flail segments without significant complications if the risk factors associated with mortality were carefully considered. Furthermore, with a view of restoring pulmonary function, as well as chest wall configuration, early operative stabilization of the ribs is more helpful than conventional treatment for patients with severe multiple rib fractures.
Summary
Clinical Aanalysis of Airway Trauma
Hyun Min Cho, Young Jin Kim, Han Young Ryu, Jung Joo Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):7-11.
  • 1,073 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Traumatic airway injuries have high rates of mortality and morbidity. Thus, we evaluated the clinical results of trauma-related airway-injury patients.
METHODS
A clinical analysis was performed for patients with airway trauma who were admitted and treated at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Konyang University Hospital from Dec. 2002 to Dec. 2009.
RESULTS
Sixteen patients were admitted and treated. Fourteen patients were male, and the ages of the patients ranged from 16 to 75 years. Six cases were penetrating injuries, 4 were traffic-accident injuries. 3 were fall injuries, and. 3 were other blunt trauma injuries. Anato- mic injuries included 14 trachea cases (87.5%), 1 Rt. main bronchus (6.25%), and 1 Lt. main bronchus cases (6.25%). Diagnosis was made by using computed tomography and bronchoscopy. Five patients were treated with an explothoracotomy, and 7 underwent neck exploration with primary repair. Three patients simply needed conservative management, and 1 patient was treated with a closed thoracostomy. The post-operative mortality rate was 6.25 % (1 patient).
CONCLUSION
Airway trauma is dangerous and should be treated as an emergency, so a high index of suspicion is essential for rapid diagnosis and successful surgical intervention in patients with airway injuries.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury