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12 "Jin Seong Cho"
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Original Articles
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
  • 867 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Changes in incidence and severity of commercial motorcycle accidents due to the use of delivery service platforms in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Dam Moon, Jae Ho Jang, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Yeon Choi, Jae-hyug Woo, Woo Sung Choi, Sung Yeol Hyun, Seung Hwan Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):121-127.   Published online September 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0031
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  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Recently, a sharp increase in the use of delivery services has led to an increase in motorcycle accidents. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the commercial motorcycle injured patients and factors related to the severity during the past 10 years.
Methods
Patients (15–64 years old) who visited the emergency department with commercial motorcycle accidents injury registered in the Korean Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (2011–2020) database, were included. All included cases were categorized into two groups according to the period: group 1 (2011–2015) and group 2 (2016–2020). General characteristics and the factors associated with severity were investigated.
Results
Among 8,123 emergency department visits, patients in group 1 were 3,071, and patients in group 2 were 5,052. The odds for severity were affected by patients age (odds ratio [OR], 1.008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.013), and overnight/morning (00:00–12:00; OR, 1.243; 95% CI, 1.091–1.415). The odds for severity were higher in head and neck injury (OR, 8.357; 95% CI, 7.410–9.424) and torso injury (OR, 4.122; 95% CI, 3.610–4.708). The odds for the severity of accidents based on excess mortality ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS) after 2015 were significant (OR, 1.491; 95% CI, 1.318–1.687). Hospitalization in the intensive care unit and death were associated with accidents after 2015 (OR, 2.593; 95% CI, 2.120–3.170).
Conclusions
Commercial motorcycle accidents have increased significantly over the past decade. There were statistical differences in severity based on EMR-ISS and the hospitalization in intensive care unit and death.
Summary
Severity of grinder injuries and related factors compared with other high-rotation cutting tool injuries: a multicenter retrospective study from 2011 to 2018
Juni Song, Yang Bin Jeon, Jae Ho Jang, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(1):32-38.   Published online May 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0057
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  • 49 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients injured by high-rotation cutting tools and the factors related to the severity of their injuries.
Methods
Adult patients (≥18 years), who presented to the emergency department (ED) after a high-rotation cutting tool injury and who were registered in the Korean Emergency Department-based Injury In-Depth Surveillance (2011–2018) database, were included. Patients’ demographic characteristics, injury-related factors, and Injury Severity Scores were collected. All included cases were categorized into two groups according to the tool that caused the injury: grinder versus nongrinder. The characteristics of the two groups were compared, and the factors associated with the severity of injuries were investigated.
Results
Among 8,697 ED visits, 4,603 patients had been using a grinder and 4,094 had been using a nongrinder tool. The most frequently injured body part while using a grinder was the hand (46.4%), followed by the head (23.0%). While using a nongrinder tool, the most frequently injured body part was also the hand (64.0%), followed by the lower leg (11.4%). The odds of a severe injury were affected by patient age (odds ratio [OR], 1.024; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.020–1.028) and using a grinder (OR, 2.073; 95% CI, 1.877–2.290). The odds of a severe injury using a grinder were higher in arm injuries (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.40–1.83) and multiple-part injuries (OR, 1.998; 95% CI, 1.639–2.437). The odds of a severe injury using a grinder were lower for head injuries (OR, 0.481; 95% CI, 0.297–0.781).
Conclusions
Injuries from grinders were more likely to affect the head and neck than nongrinder injuries, despite the lower severity. The current lack of regulations on grinders in occupational safety and health standards warrants relevant legislation and the development of applicable safety equipment.
Summary
Comparison of Penetrating and Blunt Traumatic Diaphragmatic Injuries
Sang Su Lee, Sung Youl Hyun, Hyuk Jun Yang, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Hyug Woo
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(4):210-219.   Published online December 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2019.034
  • 4,116 View
  • 96 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Traumatic diaphragmatic injury (TDI) is no longer considered to be a rare condition in Korea. This study investigated differences in the prevalence of accompanying injuries and the prognosis in patients with traumatic diaphragmatic damage according to the mechanism of injury.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with TDI who were seen at a regional emergency medical center from January 2000 to December 2018. Among severe trauma patients with traumatic diaphragmatic damage, adults older than 18 years of age with a known mechanism of injury were included in this study. Surgery performed within 6 hours after the injury was sustained was defined as emergency surgery. We assessed the survival rate and likelihood of respiratory compromise according to the mechanism of injury.

Results

In total, 103 patients were analyzed. The patients were categorized according to whether they had experienced a penetrating injury or a blunt injury. Thirty-five patients had sustained a penetrating injury, and traffic accidents were the most common cause of blunt injuries. The location of the injury did not show a statistically significant difference between these groups. Severity of TDI was more common in the blunt injury group than in the penetrating injury group, and was also more likely in patients with respiratory compromise. However, sex, the extent of damage, and the initial Glasgow coma scale score had no significant relationship with severity.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, TDI should be recognized and managed proactively in patients with blunt injury and/or respiratory compromise. Early recognition and implementation of an appropriate management strategy would improve patients’ prognosis. Multi-center, prospective studies are needed in the future.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • An audit of traumatic haemothoraces in a regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
    CM Kithuka, VC Ntola, W Sibanda
    South African Journal of Surgery.2023; 61(3): 12.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Successful Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery and Thoracotomy in the Management of Traumatic Hemothorax
    Heather M. Grant, Alexander Knee, Michael V. Tirabassi
    Journal of Surgical Research.2022; 269: 83.     CrossRef
The New Recreational Transportation on the Street: Personal Mobility, Is It Safe?
Young Woo Kim, Won Bin Park, Jin Seong Cho, Sung Youl Hyun, Geun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2018;31(3):125-134.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.040
  • 15,486 View
  • 74 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The interest in the personal mobility started to grow and as the interest increases, there are growing concerns about the safety of it. The purpose of the study is to look at the types and dynamics of patients injured by the personal mobilities.

Methods

This was a retrospective 2-year observational study, from January 2016 to December 2017, on the patients who visited the emergency center and the trauma center, with an injury related to driving the personal mobility. Cases of the personal mobility-related accident were collected based on electronic medical records and hospital emergency department-based injury in-depth surveillance data.

Results

A total of 65 patients visited the emergency center and the trauma center, during this study period. Six patients of 50 adults admitted the alcohol consumption (12%) and two adult patients wore the helmet as the protection gear (3.1%). The number of the patients in 2017 rises three times more than the number of patients in 2016 (51 vs. 14). Injuries to the head and neck region (67.7%) was the most common, followed by the upper extremity (46.2%). Eleven patients (16.9%) were admitted to the hospital, of whom three were admitted to the intensive care unit due to intracranial hemorrhage. Nine patients underwent surgery.

Conclusions

The use of the personal mobility will continue to grow and the accidents, caused by the vehicle, will increase along with it. The study showed the damage is worse than expected. Personal mobility currently has a limited safety laws and the riders are not yet fully aware of its danger. The improvement of the regulation of the personal mobility, safety education is needed.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Critical risk factors associated with fatal/severe crash outcomes in personal mobility device rider at-fault crashes: A two-step inter-cluster rule mining technique
    Reuben Tamakloe, Kaihan Zhang, Ahmed Hossain, Inhi Kim, Shin Hyoung Park
    Accident Analysis & Prevention.2024; 199: 107527.     CrossRef
  • Typological index of alleyways: mapping the pattern of a forgotten urban form element
    Khaled Alawadi, Asim Khanal, Rawan Sohdy Abdelfattah
    Journal of Urban Design.2023; 28(2): 199.     CrossRef
  • Electric personal mobility device driver behaviors, their antecedents and consequences: A narrative review
    Clément Laverdet, Pascal Malola, Thierry Meyer, Patricia Delhomme
    Journal of Safety Research.2023; 86: 274.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of injuries associated with electric personal mobility devices: a nationwide cross-sectional study in South Korea
    Maro Kim, Dongbum Suh, Jin Hee Lee, Hyuksool Kwon, Yujin Choi, Joo Jeong, Sola Kim, Soyun Hwang, Joong Wan Park, You Hwan Jo
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2022; 35(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Types of injuries caused by isolated electric scooter accidents
    Kyongwon Yoo, Hyung Il Kim
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2022; 35(4): 232.     CrossRef
  • Revisiting transit-oriented development: Alleys as critical walking infrastructure
    Khaled Alawadi, Asim Khanal, Azhar Doudin, Rahma Abdelghani
    Transport Policy.2021; 100: 187.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological trends of personal mobility devices and power-assisted bicycles-related fires and injuries in Singapore
    Jason Qi Wei Kwek, Qin Xiang Ng, Amelia Justina Lim, Li Feng Ang, Shalini Arulanandam
    Burns.2021; 47(4): 983.     CrossRef
  • Where to Ride? An Explorative Study to Investigate Potential Risk Factors of Personal Mobility Accidents
    Jihun Oh, Jeongseob Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research an.2021; 18(3): 965.     CrossRef
  • Contextual risk factors in the use of electric kick scooters: An episode sampling inquiry
    Kyung-Jun Lee, Chan Hyeok Yun, Myung Hwan Yun
    Safety Science.2021; 139: 105233.     CrossRef
  • Survey on e-Powered Micro Personal Mobility Vehicles: Exploring Current Issues towards Future Developments
    Stefania Boglietti, Benedetto Barabino, Giulio Maternini
    Sustainability.2021; 13(7): 3692.     CrossRef
  • Identifying the Risk Factors in the Context-of-Use of Electric Kick Scooters Based on a Latent Dirichlet Allocation
    Kyung-Jun Lee, Chan Hyeok Yun, Ilsun Rhiu, Myung Hwan Yun
    Applied Sciences.2020; 10(23): 8447.     CrossRef
  • Challenges Caused by Increased Use of E-Powered Personal Mobility Vehicles in European Cities
    Jurgis Zagorskas, Marija Burinskienė
    Sustainability.2019; 12(1): 273.     CrossRef
A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Before and After the Regional Trauma Center's Establishment
Bo Hyung Song, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Jin Seong Cho, Dae Sung Ma, Ha Kyung Kim, Geun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2016;29(3):68-75.   Published online September 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2016.29.3.68
  • 2,138 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of regional trauma center's management.
METHODS
Data collected between January 2013 and December 2015 from a regional trauma center registry was retrospectively reviewed. The patients who had injury severity score (ISS) greater than 15 and over the age of 18 were included. We compared annual general characteristics, the injury mechanism, the pathway of transportation, the injury severity score, the length of stay in emergency department (ED) and hospital, the in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS
The annual numbers of enrolled patients were 337, 334 and 278, respectively. No significant differences were found in the annual patient's median ages, injury mechanism, ISS and in-hospital mortality. The annual proportions of coming from other hospital and the median length of stay in hospital were increased after establishment of regional trauma center. The annual median lengths of stay in ED were decreased remarkably.
CONCLUSION
Through the establishment of regional trauma center, the length of stay in ED can be reduced but not in-hospital mortality. More multidisciplinary cooperation and well-organized study is needed to reduce mortality of major trauma patients and maximize effect of regional trauma center.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Effects of a Trauma Team Approach on the Management of Open Extremity Fractures in Polytrauma Patients: A Retrospective Comparative Study
    Seungyeob Sakong, Eic Ju Lim, Jun-Min Cho, Nak-Jun Choi, Jae-Woo Cho, Jong-Keon Oh
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2021; 34(2): 105.     CrossRef
Value of Repeat Brain Computed Tomography in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury
Ho Jun Jo, Yong Su Lim, Jin Joo Kim, Jin Seong Cho, Sung Youl Hyun, Hyuk Jun Yang, Gun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(3):149-157.   Published online September 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.3.149
  • 2,009 View
  • 8 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of pediatric trauma patients came to the emergency department. Without guidelines, many of these children underwent repeat brain computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of repeat brain CT in children with TBI.
METHODS
We conducted a retrospective study of TBI in children younger than 19 years of age who visited the emergency department (ED) from January 2011 to December 2012. According to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale score of the patients, study population divided in three groups. Clinical data collected included age, mechanism of injury, type of TBI, and outcome.
RESULTS
A Total 83 children with TBI received repeat brain CT. There were no need for neurosurgical intervention in mild TBI (GCS score 13-15) group who underwent routine repeat CT. 4 patients of mild TBI group, received repeat brain CT due to neurological deterioration, and one patient underwent neurosurgical intervention. Routine repeat CT identified 12 patients with radiographic progression. One patient underwent neurosurgical intervention based on the second brain CT finding, who belonged to the moderate TBI (GCS score 9-12) group.
CONCLUSION
Our study showed that children with mild TBI can be observed without repeat brain CT when there is no evidence of neurologic deterioration. Further study is needed for establish indication for repetition of CT scan in order to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure of children.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mortality and Epidemiology in 256 Cases of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury : Korean Neuro-Trauma Data Bank System (KNTDBS) 2010–2014
    Hee-Won Jeong, Seung-Won Choi, Jin-Young Youm, Jeong-Wook Lim, Hyon-Jo Kwon, Shi-Hun Song
    Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society.2017; 60(6): 710.     CrossRef
Association between Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services in Inter-Hospital Transport of Trauma Patients
Kyeong Guk Kang, Jin Seong Cho, Jin Ju Kim, Yong Su Lim, Won Bin Park, Hyuk Jun Yang, Geun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(3):108-114.   Published online September 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.3.108
  • 2,101 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To improve outcome of severe trauma patient, the shortening of transport time is needed. Although helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is still a subject of debate, it must also be considered for trauma system. The aim of this study is to assess whether transport method (HEMS versus ground EMS) is associated with outcome among inter-hospital transport.
METHODS
All trauma patients transported to regional emergency center by either HEMS or ground EMS from September 2011 to September 2014. We have classified patients according to two groups by transport method. Age younger than 15 years and self-discharged patients were excluded.
RESULTS
A total of 427 patients were available for analysis during this period. 60 patients were transported by HEMS and 367 patients were transported by ground EMS. HEMS group had higher mortality than ground EMS group (23.3% vs 3.5%; p<0.001), and included more patients with excess mortality ratio adjusted injury severity score (EMR-ISS)above 25 (91.7% vs 48.8%; p<0.001). In the multivariable regression analysis, HEMS was not associated with improved outcome compared with ground EMS, but only EMR-ISS was associated with a mortality of patients (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.09).
CONCLUSION
In this study, helicopter emergency medical services transport was not associated with a decreased of mortality among the trauma patients who inter-hospital transported to the regional emergency center.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reduced Mortality in Severely Injured Patients Using Hospital-based Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Interhospital Transport
    Oh Hyun Kim, Young-Il Roh, Hyung-Il Kim, Yong Sung Cha, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang, Kang Hyun Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2017; 32(7): 1187.     CrossRef
Case Report
A Case of Traumatic Bilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy Associated with Skull Base Fracture
Jeong In Hwang, Jin Seong Cho, Seung Chul Lee, Jeong Hun Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(1):66-69.
  • 1,304 View
  • 5 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traumatic bilateral abducens nerve palsy is rare and is associated with intracranial, skull and cervical spine injuries. We report a case of bilateral abducens nerve palsy in a 40-month-old patient with a skull base fracture. The injury mechanism was associated with direct nerve injury caused by a right petrous bone fracture and indirect injury by frontal impact on the abducens nerve at the point of fixation to the petrous portion and Dorello`s canal. The emergency physician should be aware of injuries and the mechanism of abducens nerve palsy in head trauma.
Summary
Original Articles
The Utility of Routine Serial Brain Computed Tomography for Referred Traumatic Brain Injury Patients According to the Severity of Traumatic Brain Injury
Jeong In Hwang, Jin Seong Cho, Seung Chul Lee, Jeong Hun Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(2):134-141.
  • 1,210 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were referred from other hospitals for further management. In addition, patients routinely underwent computed tomography examinations of the head (HCT) in the referral hospitals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the utility of routine HCT scans according to the severity of TBI.
METHODS
Patients with TBI referred to our hospital between December 2005 and July 2008 were included in this study. We investigated HCT findings, indications for repeat HCT examinations (routine versus a neurological change), and neurosurgical interventions. The head injury severity was divided into three categories according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, including mild, moderate, and severe TBI. The use of neurosurgical interventions between patients who underwent routine HCT scans and patients who underwent HCT scans for a neurological change were compared according to the severity of TBI.
RESULTS
A total of 81 patients met the entry criteria for this study. Among these patients, 67%(n=54) of the patients underwent HCT scans on a routine basis, whereas 33%(n=27) of the patients underwent HCT scans for a neurological change. A total of 21 patients showed signs of a worsening condition on the HCT scans. Neurosurgical intervention was required for 23(28.4%) patients. For patients who underwent routine HCT examinations, no patient with mild TBI underwent a neurosurgical intervention. However, one patient with moderate TBI and three(13%) patients with severe TBI underwent neurosurgical interventions. The kappa index, the level of agreement for HCT indications of intervention and referral reasons for intervention, was 0.65 for high hierarchy hospitals and 0.06 for low hierarchy hospitals.
CONCLUSION
Routine serial HCT examinations in the referred hospitals would be useful for patients with severe head injury and for patients from low hierarchy hospitals where no emergency physicians or neurosurgeons are available.
Summary
The Use of Brain Computer Tomography Examination with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Pediatrics
Ha Kyung Kim, Jin Joo Kim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Hyuk Jun Yang, Gun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(3):63-70.
  • 1,131 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
In children, mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI) account for 70~90% of head injuries. Without guidelines, many of these children may be exposed to excess radiation due to unnecessary imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a mild TBI guideline in imaging of pediatric patients.
METHODS
The medical records of all children who had head computed tomography and were admitted to our hospital with a TBI with Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale and Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 to 15 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with PECARN Rule.
RESULTS
A total of 1260 children were included and all children checked with head computed tomography. 61 pediatrics had CT positive and presented skull fracture 40, hemorrhage 8, hemorrhagic contusion 7, and diffuse axonal injury 1. Also, 4 patients diagnosed both skull fracture and brain haemorrhage and 1 patient diagnosed both haemorrhage and haemorrhagic contusion.
CONCLUSION
There are many pediatric traumatic patients who exposed to radiation due to CT. But, the most of results were negative. So, consider to follow the CT guideline for children and many do not require brain CT.
Summary
Predictive Indicators for the Severity of Pediatric Trauma and the Prevention of Injuries According to the General Characteristics and Pre-hospital Factors of Severe Pediatric Trauma Patients
Jae Hyug Woo, Hyuk Jun Yang, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jin Joo Kim, Won Bin Park, Jae Ho Jang, Gun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(3):43-49.
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  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Trauma is one of the most common causes of death for children, and identifying severely injured children quickly in an overcrowded emergency room (ER) is difficult. Therefore, severe injury must be prevented, and the severity of injuries in children must be determined easily from their general characteristics and pre-hospital factors.
METHODS
Injured children younger than 15 years of age who visited the ER from June 2011 to May 2013 were enrolled. According to the revised trauma score (RTS) of the patients, the study population was divided in two groups, a severe group (RTS<7) and a mild group (RTS> or =7). The general characteristics and the pre-hospital factors were compared between the two groups.
RESULTS
Six hundred seventy-three children were enrolled, their mean age was 8.03 (+/-4.45) years, and 476 (70.73%) patients were male. Of these patients, 22 patients (3.27%) were in the severe group, and 651 patients (96.73%) were in the mild group. Fewer males were in the severe group than in the mild group (50.00% vs. 71.43%, p=0.030), and children in the severe group were younger than children in the mild group (3.50 vs. 8.00 years, p=0.049). In the severe group, toddlers (54.55%, p=0.036) were the most common age group. Severe injuries occurred more often in spring (32.81%) and summer (54.56%) than in autumn (9.09%) and winter (4.55%) (p=0.026). The most common places of injury in the severe group were roads (50.00%, p=0.009), and the most common mechanisms of injury in the severe group were traffic accidents (50.00%), followed by falls (31.82%) (p=0.011). Most severely injured children were transferred by ambulance (72.73%, p=0.000).
CONCLUSION
The results of this study may be helpful for identifying severely injured children quickly in the field and the ER. To prevent severe pediatric injuries, precautions and policies based on these results should be established.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury