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Original Articles
Angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons for trauma patients: is it feasible in Korea? A retrospective study
Soonseong Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):28-36.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0076
  • 1,019 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Recent advancements in interventional radiology have made angioembolization an invaluable modality in trauma care. Angioembolization is typically performed by interventional radiologists. In this study, we aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of emergency angioembolization performed by trauma surgeons.
Methods
We identified trauma patients who underwent emergency angiography due to significant trauma-related hemorrhage between January 2020 and June 2023 at our trauma center. Until May 2022, two dedicated interventional radiologists performed emergency angiography at our center. However, since June 2022, a trauma surgeon with a background and experience in vascular surgery has performed emergency angiography for trauma-related bleeding. The indications for trauma surgeon–performed angiography included significant hemorrhage from liver injury, pelvic injury, splenic injury, or kidney injury. We assessed the angiography results according to the operator of the initial angiographic procedure. The term “failure of the first angioembolization” was defined as rebleeding from any cause, encompassing patients who underwent either re-embolization due to rebleeding or surgery due to rebleeding.
Results
No significant differences were found between the interventional radiologists and the trauma surgeon in terms of re-embolization due to rebleeding, surgery due to rebleeding, or the overall failure rate of the first angioembolization. Mortality and morbidity rates were also similar between the two groups. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis evaluating failure after the first angioembolization, pelvic embolization emerged as the sole significant risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–10.33; P=0.041). Trauma surgeon–performed angioembolization was not deemed a significant risk factor in the multivariable logistic regression model.
Conclusions
Trauma surgeons, when equipped with the necessary endovascular skills and experience, can safely perform angioembolization. To further improve quality control, an enhanced training curriculum for trauma surgeons is warranted.
Summary
Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):20-27.   Published online January 12, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0072
  • 1,205 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Severe abdominal injuries often require immediate clinical assessment and surgical intervention to prevent life-threatening complications. In Jeju Regional Trauma Center, we have instituted a protocol for emergency department (ED) laparotomy at the trauma bay. We investigated the mortality and time taken from admission to ED laparotomy.
Methods
We reviewed the data recorded in our center’s trauma database between January 2020 and December 2022 and identified patients who underwent laparotomy because of abdominal trauma. Laparotomies that were performed at the trauma bay or the ED were classified as ED laparotomy, whereas those performed in the operating room (OR) were referred to as OR laparotomy. In cases that required expeditious hemostasis, ED laparotomy was performed appropriately.
Results
From January 2020 to December 2022, 105 trauma patients admitted to our hospital underwent emergency laparotomy. Of these patients, six (5.7%) underwent ED laparotomy. ED laparotomy was associated with a mortality rate of 66.7% (four of six patients), which was significantly higher than that of OR laparotomy (17.1%, 18 of 99 patients, P=0.006). All the patients who received ED laparotomy also underwent damage control laparotomy. The time between admission to the first laparotomy was significantly shorter in the ED laparotomy group (28.5 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 14–59 minutes) when compared with the OR laparotomy group (104 minutes; IQR, 88–151 minutes; P <0.001). The two patients who survived after ED laparotomy had massive mesenteric bleeding, which was successfully ligated. The other four patients, who had liver laceration, kidney rupture, spleen injury, and pancreas avulsion, succumbed to the injuries.
Conclusions
Although ED laparotomy was associated with a higher mortality rate, the time between admission and ED laparotomy was markedly shorter than for OR laparotomy. Notably, major mesenteric hemorrhages were effectively controlled through ED laparotomy.
Summary
Quality monitoring of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta using cumulative sum analysis in Korea: a case series
Hyunsik Choi, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Wu Seong Kang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):78-86.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0069
  • 2,659 View
  • 48 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a state-of-the-art lifesaving procedure. However, due to its high mortality and morbidity, including ischemia and reperfusion injury, well-trained medical staff and effective systems are needed. This study was conducted to investigate the learning curve for REBOA.
Methods
To monitor this learning curve, we used cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis and graphs of mortality and aortic occlusion time within 60, 90, and 120 minutes for consecutive patients. The procedures performed between July 2017 and June 2021 were divided into pre-trauma center (pre-TC; July 2017–February 2020) and TC (February 2020–June 2021) periods.
Results
REBOA was performed for 31 consecutive patients with trauma. The pre-TC (n=12) and TC (n=19) periods did not differ significantly with regard to Injury Severity Score, age, injury mechanism, initial systolic blood pressure, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), or CPR in the emergency department. At the 17th consecutive patient during the TC period, CUSUM failure graphs for mortality and aortic occlusion time exhibited a downward inflection, indicating an improvement in performance.
Conclusions
The mortality and aortic occlusion time of REBOA improved, and these parameters can be monitored using CUSUM analysis at the hospital level.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Emergency department laparotomy for patients with severe abdominal trauma: a retrospective study at a single regional trauma center in Korea
    Yu Jin Lee, Soon Tak Jeong, Joongsuck Kim, Kwanghee Yeo, Ohsang Kwon, Kyounghwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Jihun Gwak, Wu Seong Kang
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2024; 37(1): 20.     CrossRef
  • Nonselective versus Selective Angioembolization for Trauma Patients with Pelvic Injuries Accompanied by Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
    Hyunseok Jang, Soon Tak Jeong, Yun Chul Park, Wu Seong Kang
    Medicina.2023; 59(8): 1492.     CrossRef
Case Report
Celiac Artery Compression After a Spine Fracture, and Pericardium Rupture After Blunt Trauma: A Case Report from a Single Injury
Joongsuck Kim, Hyun Min Cho, Sung Hwan Kim, Seong Hoon Jung, Jeong Eun Sohn, Kwangmin Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):130-135.   Published online June 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0053
  • 3,295 View
  • 68 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Celiac artery compression is a rare condition in which the celiac artery is compressed by the median arcuate ligament. Case reports of compression after trauma are hard to find. Blunt traumatic pericardium rupture is also a rare condition. We report a single patient who experienced both rare conditions from a single blunt injury. An 18-year-old woman was brought to the trauma center after a fatal motorcycle accident, in which she was a passenger. The driver was found dead. Her vital signs were stable, but she complained of mild abdominal pain, chest wall pain, and severe back pain. There were no definite neurologic deficits. Her initial computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple rib fractures, moderate lung contusions with hemothorax, moderate liver injury, and severe lumbar spine fracture and dislocation. She was brought to the angiography room to check for active bleeding in the liver, which was not apparent. However, the guide wire was not able to pass through the celiac trunk. A review of the initial CT revealed kinking of the celiac trunk, which was assumed to be due to altered anatomy of the median arcuate ligament caused by spine fractures. Immediate fixation of the vertebrae was performed. During recovery, her hemothorax remained loculated. Suspecting empyema, thoracotomy was performed at 3 weeks after admission, revealing organized hematoma without pus formation, as well as rupture of the pericardium, which was immediately sutured, and decortication was carried out. Five weeks after admission, she had recovered without complications and was discharged home.

Summary
Original Article
Effectiveness after Designation of a Trauma Center: Experience with Operating a Trauma Team at a Private Hospital
Kyoung Hwan Kim, Sung Ho Han, Soon-Ho Chon, Joongsuck Kim, Oh Sang Kwon, Min Koo Lee, Hohyoung Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(1):1-7.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.054
  • 3,284 View
  • 36 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of how the trauma care system applied on the management of trauma patient within the region.

Methods

We divided the patients in a pre-trauma system group and a post-trauma system group according to the time when we began to apply the trauma care system in the Halla Hospital after designation of a trauma center. We compared annual general characteristics, injury severity score, the average numbers of the major trauma patients, clinical outcomes of the emergency department, and mortality rates between the two groups.

Results

No significant differences were found in the annual patients’ average age (54.1±20.0 vs. 52.8±18.2, p=0.201), transportation pathways (p=0.462), injury mechanism (p=0.486), injury severity score (22.93 vs. 23.96, p=0.877), emergency room (ER) stay in minutes (199.17 vs. 194.29, p=0.935), time to operation or procedure in minutes (154.07 vs. 142.1, p=0.767), time interval to intensive care unit (ICU) in minutes (219.54 vs. 237.13, p=0.662). The W score and Z score indicated better outcomes in post-trauma system group than in pre-trauma system group (W scores, 2.186 vs. 2.027; Z scores, 2.189 vs. 1.928). However, when analyzing survival rates for each department, in the neurosurgery department, in comparison with W score and Z score, both W score were positive and Z core was higher than +1.96. (pre-trauma group: 3.426, 2.335 vs. post-trauma group: 4.17, 1.967). In other than the neurosurgery department, W score was positive after selection, but Z score was less than +1.96, which is not a meaningful outcome of treatment (pre-trauma group: ?0.358, ?0.271 vs. post-trauma group: 1.071, 0.958).

Conclusions

There were significant increases in patient numbers and improvement in survival rate after the introduction of the trauma system. However, there were no remarkable change in ER stay, time to ICU admission, time interval to emergent procedure or operation, and survival rates except neurosurgery. To achieve meaningful survival rates and the result of the rise of the trauma index, we will need to secure sufficient manpower, including specialists in various surgical area as well as rapid establishment of the trauma center.

Summary
Case Reports
Hydronephrosis during Conservative Treatment for a Renal Injury Patient
Maru Kim, Joongsuck Kim, Sung Jeep Kim, Hang Joo Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(2):47-50.   Published online June 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.2.47
  • 2,055 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 21-year-old male visited our emergency room. He could not remember the mechanism of injury. He was found beside a motorcycle. Initial vital sign was stable. Observation and conservative treatment were planned at the intensive care unit (ICU). On the third day at ICU, he complained sudden flank pain. It was colicky and hard to control. Without the pain, he had no specific symptom, sign, or laboratory findings. On computed tomography, renal pelvis was filled with hematoma which induced hydronephrosis. Double-J catheter and percutaneous nephrostomy was implemented by an intervention radiologist. Hematome in the renal pelvis was aspirated during the procedure. Symptom of the patient was subsided after the procedure. He was discharged without specific complications.
Summary
Temporary Closure for Sternotomy in Patient with Massive Transfusion Might Be Lethal
Maru Kim, Joongsuck Kim, Sung Jeep Kim, Hang Joo Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(1):12-15.   Published online March 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.1.12
  • 2,138 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 58-year-old male visited our emergency room for multiple traumas from explosion. On initial evaluation, hemopneumoperitoneum with liver laceration (grade 4) and colon perforation was identified. Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade was also identified. Shrapnel was detected in the right ventricle. Damage control surgery was planned due to condition of hypotension. In operation room, control over bleeding was achieved after sternotomy, pericardiotomy, and laparotomy. Massive transfusion was done during operation. After gauze packing, operation was terminated with temporary closure (TC). Sanguineous fluid was drained profusely. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was confirmed through laboratory findings. No extravasation was discovered at hepatic angiogram. On re-operation, there was no active bleeding but oozing from sternotomy site was identified. Bone bleeding was impossible to control. Finally, reoperation was ended after gauze packing and TC all over again. The patient could survive for only a day after re-operation.
Summary
Original Articles
Survey of Recognition of Trauma and Trauma Care System
Il Yong Chung, Joongsuck Kim, Yeongcheol Kim, Seongyup Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):165-169.
  • 1,473 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Trauma is one of the most common and lethal causes of death in Korea, especially in people under the age of 40. However, a considerable percentage of trauma patients are lost each year due to the scarce resources of the trauma system. The purpose of this study was to determine the recognition of trauma and trauma system.
METHODS
From April 8th to 22nd, 2014, visitors and in-patients in our medical center were interviewed and surveyed with a questionnaire, which included 28 questions regarding the trauma system, such as the most common cause of death, the locations of trauma centers, the importance of trauma centers, and consent for supporting trauma centers financially.
RESULTS
The majority of the respondents recognized trauma as a common cause of death; this was particularly true for people younger than 40. Most respondents' expectancy for the optimal time for trauma patient transport was high, recognizing that major trauma patients should receive urgent care. The respondents felt that trauma centers are important and needed, just as much as police stations and libraries are. Among 178 respondents, 140 (80.5%) were willing to financially support the trauma system.
CONCLUSION
The respondents were aware of the seriousness of trauma and generally agreed on the need for trauma centers. In order to meet the needs and the demands of the people, and to reduce preventable death rate, the trauma system should be improved not only in quality but also in quantity with better and more facilities and manpower, with the aid of publicity from trauma organizations and funding from the government.
Summary
The Role of Single-contrast CT for Management in Hemodynamically Stable Anterior Abdominal Stab wound Patients
Janghwan Jo, Joongsuck Kim, Yeongcheol Kim, Ilyong Chung, Jongmin Park, Eunjung Ahn, Eunyoung Kim, Seihyeog Park, Seongyup Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):145-150.
  • 1,220 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To assess the accuracy and role of single-contrast computed tomography (CT) in the management of anterior abdominal stab wound (AASW).
METHODS
During 8-years period, single-contrast CT was performed in 21 hemodynamically stable AASW patients (age range, 22-64 years; median age, 45 years), including 19 men and 2 women. CT scans were evaluated by one trauma surgeon and one senior resident to determine the depth of injury(peritoneal violation or not), and abnormal findings of intraperitoneal cavity associated with stab injury. We retrospectively reviewed medical records regarding operative findings.
RESULTS
Nine patients underwent abdominal surgery and 12 patients nonoperative management. In the abdominal surgery group, abnormal CT findings included peritoneal violation in 14 patients and abnormal intraperitoneal cavity findings in 5 patients. There was no statistical significant difference regarding abnormal CT findings between abdominal surgery group and nonoperative management group. Among the nine abdominal surgery patients, therapeutic laparotomy was performed on 4 patients. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of peritoneal violation to predictive therapeutic laparotomy were 28.6% and 100%, respectively. In addition, the PPV and NPV of abnormal intraperitoneal cavity CT findings to predict therapeutic laparotomy were 40.0% and 87.5%, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference regarding the abnormal CT findings between therapeutic laparotomy group and non therapeutic laparotomy group.
CONCLUSION
CT is a good adjunctive method to evaluate hemodynamicaly stable AASW patients. If peritoneal violation is not seen on CT scan, conservative treatment on local wound may be safely performed without additional abdominal surgery. However, further study is warranted to evaluate the exact role of CT in the diagnostic workup of AASW patients.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury