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Case Reports
Treatment of a penetrating inferior vena cava injury using doctor-helicopter emergency medical service and direct-to-operating room resuscitation in Korea: a case report
Dongmin Seo, Jieun Kim, Jiwon Kim, Inhae Heo, Jonghwan Moon, Kyoungwon Jung, Hohyung Jung
Received August 21, 2023  Accepted October 31, 2023  Published online January 12, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0055    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Inferior vena cava (IVC) injuries can have fatal outcomes and are associated with high mortality rates. Patients with IVC injuries require multiple procedures, including prehospital care, surgical techniques, and postoperative care. We present the case of a 67-year-old woman who stabbed herself in the abdomen with a knife, resulting in an infrarenal IVC injury. We shortened the transfer time by transporting the patient using a helicopter and decided to perform direct-to-operating room resuscitation by a trauma physician in the helicopter. The patient underwent laparotomy with IVC ligation for damage control during the first operation. The second- and third-look operations, including previous suture removal, IVC reconstruction, and IVC thrombectomy, were performed by a trauma surgeon specializing in cardiovascular diseases. The patient was discharged without major complications on the 19th postoperative day with rivaroxaban as an anticoagulant medication. Computed tomography angiography at the outpatient clinic showed that thrombi in the IVC and both iliac veins had been completely removed. Patients with IVC injuries can be effectively treated using a trauma system that includes fast transportation by helicopter, damage control for rapid hemostasis, and expert treatment of IVC injuries.
Summary
Conservative treatment of corpus callosum hemorrhage due to a falling coconut in Indonesia: a case report
Hanan Anwar Rusidi, Ferry Wijanarko
Received July 28, 2023  Accepted November 14, 2023  Published online January 12, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0052    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The potential for traumatic brain injury resulting from falling coconuts is frequently overlooked. These incidents can cause focal lesions in the form of brain hemorrhage. Corpus callosum hemorrhage due to blunt trauma from a falling object is rare and typically associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this report is to detail a case of corpus callosum hemorrhage caused by a coconut fall and to discuss the conservative management approach employed. We report the case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of unconsciousness, headache, and expressive aphasia after being struck by a falling coconut. Notably, hemorrhage was detected within the body of the corpus callosum, as revealed by imaging findings. The patient received intensive monitoring and treatment in the intensive care unit, including oxygen therapy, saline infusion, an osmotic diuretic, analgesics, and medication to prevent stress ulcers. The patient demonstrated marked clinical improvement while undergoing conservative treatment. Despite the typically unfavorable prognosis of these rare injuries, our patient exhibited meaningful clinical improvement with conservative treatment. Timely diagnosis and appropriate interventions were crucial in managing the patient’s condition. This report emphasizes the importance of considering traumatic brain injury caused by falling coconuts and highlights the need for further research and awareness in this area.
Summary
Surgical management of supratentorial and infratentorial epidural hematoma in Korea: three case reports
Su Young Yoon, Junepill Seok, Yook Kim, Jin Suk Lee, Jin Young Lee, Mou Seop Lee, Hong Rye Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):399-403.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0073
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Supratentorial and infratentorial epidural hematoma (SIEDH) is a rare but life-threatening complication following traumatic brain injury. However, the literature on SIEDH is sparse, consisting only of a few small series. Prompt diagnosis and the application of appropriate surgical techniques are crucial for the rapid and safe management of SIEDH. Herein, we present three cases of SIEDH treated at our institution, employing a range of surgical approaches.
Summary
A method of bedside urethrography before catheterization in pelvic trauma in Korea: a case report
Hojun Lee, Sung Yub Jeong, Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):451-453.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0047
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We introduce a convenient method of urethrography before catheterization for patients with pelvic trauma that can be used in a resuscitation area. A 10-mL syringe without a needle was used. X-ray contrast medium (Iohexol, 300 mg I/mL) was administered through the urethral orifice using a 10-mL syringe without needle and a simple pelvic anteroposterior film was taken (70 kilovolt [peak], 50 mAs). A 36-year-old soldier with a saddle injury from a gun barrel was taken to a trauma center. He had a pelvic fracture and complained of hematuria. Bedside urethrography above described was performed. The anterior urethra showed nonspecific findings, but dye leaked from the posterior urethra. Bedside Foley catheter insertion was attempted, but the catheter could not be advanced past the membranous urethra. Thereafter, suprapubic catheterization was performed. On the day of the injury, iliac artery embolization was carried out. The dislocated sacroiliac joint was also treated using open reduction and internal fixation. On hospital day 7, guidewire Foley insertion was performed. This bedside urethrography technique is simple and useful for pelvic fractures in which urethral injury is suspected.
Summary
Various injury patterns due to combustion (typical but unfamiliar to physicians and easy to miss) in Korea: a case report
Hyung Il Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):393-398.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0060
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Patients transported from fire sites may exhibit various injury patterns. Major trauma, skin burn, inhalation burn, and carbon monoxide poisoning are typical injuries. However, most physicians may be unfamiliar that cyanide poisoning can frequently occur due to combustion. Cyanide poisoning is highly significant owing to high mortality and the existence of antidotes. I present a 35-year-old man who was transported from a burning building and suffered severe metabolic acidosis despite no major bleeding as well as mild carbon monoxide poisoning. I suspected cyanide poisoning and administered the antidote; subsequently, the patient showed improvement. The next day, sudden airway obstruction developed, and emergency endotracheal intubation was performed. The inhalation damage was detected only in the lower airway tract and not in the upper airway. Physicians should be aware of cyanide poisoning and inhalation burn to avoid missing treatment opportunities.
Summary
Expediting venous drainage in large anterolateral thigh flaps for scalp electrical burns in India: two case reports on the use of primary vein grafts for second vein anastomosis
Jyotica Jagadish Chawaria, Parvati Ravula, Nazia Tabassum, Srikanth Rangachari
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):404-410.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0054
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Large scalp defects resulting from high-voltage electrical burns require free flaps, preferably skin, to permit optimal coverage and enable future or simultaneous cranial vault reconstruction. The anterolateral thigh permits the harvest of a large area of skin supplied by a reliable perforator. The superficial temporal vessels offer the proximate choice of recipient vessels to enable adequate reach and coverage. The lack of a second vein at this site implies the inability to perform a second venous anastomosis; however, this obstacle can be overcome by using an interposition vein graft, to the neck veins primarily. This assures adequate venous drainage and complete flap survival.
Summary
A rare and unique experience of a blunt intrathoracic traumatic injury of the trachea and its management in South Africa: a case report
Rudo Mutsa Vanessa Pswarayi, Anna Katariina Kerola
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):416-420.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0036
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Blunt intrathoracic tracheal injuries are rare, even among blunt chest trauma patients. An early diagnosis based on a high index of suspicion allows for timely surgical management of potentially fatal airway trauma, thereby improving overall outcomes. Diagnosing these injuries can be difficult due to their nonspecific clinical features and the occasional difficulty in radiologic diagnosis. If a patient exhibits respiratory compromise with difficult ventilation and poor lung expansion, despite the insertion and management of an intercostal drain following high-energy blunt trauma, there should be a heightened suspicion of potential airway trauma. The aim of primary repair is to restore airway integrity and to minimize the loss of pulmonary parenchyma function. This case report discusses the rare clinical presentation of a patient with blunt trauma to the intrathoracic airway, the surgical management thereof, and his overall outcome. Although blunt traumatic injuries of the trachea are extremely rare and often fatal, early surgical intervention can potentially reduce the risk of mortality.
Summary
Bleeding control of an injury to the infrarenal inferior vena cava and right external iliac vein by ipsilateral internal iliac artery and superficial femoral vein ligation after blunt abdominal trauma in Korea: a case report
Hoonsung Park, Maru Kim, Dae Sang Lee, Tae Hwa Hong, Doo-Hun Kim, Hang joo Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):441-446.   Published online November 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Inferior vena cava (IVC) injuries, while accounting for fewer than 0.5% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, are among the most difficult to manage. Despite advancements in prehospital care, transportation, operative techniques, and perioperative management, the mortality rate for IVC injuries has remained at 20% to 66% for several decades. Furthermore, 30% to 50% of patients with IVC injuries succumb during the prehospital phase. A 65-year-old male patient, who had been struck in the back by a 500-kg excavator shovel at a construction site, was transported to a regional trauma center. Injuries to the right side of the infrarenal IVC and the right external iliac vein (EIV) were suspected, along with fractures to the right iliac bone and sacrum. The injury to the right side of the infrarenal IVC wall was repaired, and the right internal iliac artery was ligated. However, persistent bleeding around the right EIV was observed, and we were unable to achieve proximal and distal control of the right EIV. Attempts at prolonged manual compression were unsuccessful. To decrease venous return, we ligated the right superficial femoral vein. This reduced the amount of bleeding, enabling us to secure the surgical field. We ultimately controlled the bleeding, and approximately 5 L of blood products were infused intraoperatively. A second-look operation was performed 2 days later, by which time most of the bleeding sites had ceased. Orthopedic surgeons then took over the operation, performing closed reduction and external fixation. Five days later, the patient underwent definitive fixation and was transferred for rehabilitation on postoperative day 22.
Summary
Radiological assessment and follow-up of a nonsurgically treated odontoid process fracture after a motor vehicle accident in Egypt: a case report
Ahmad Mokhtar Abodahab
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):411-415.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0039
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An odontoid process fracture is a serious type of cervical spine injury. This injury is categorized into three types based on the location of the fracture. Severe or even fatal neurological deficits can occur due to associated cord injury, which can result in complete quadriplegia. Computed tomography is the primary diagnostic tool, while magnetic resonance imaging is used to evaluate any associated cord injuries. These injuries can occur either directly from the injury or during transportation to the hospital if mishandled. There are two main treatment approaches: surgical fixation or external nonsurgical fixation, with various types and models of fixation devices available. In this case study, computed tomography follow-up confirmed that external fixation can yield successful results in terms of complete healing, even in cases complicated by other factors that may impede healing, such as pregnancy.
Summary
Massive traumatic abdominal wall hernia in pediatric multitrauma in Australia: a case report
Sarah Douglas-Seidl, Camille Wu
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):447-450.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare presentation, most commonly reported in the context of motor vehicle accidents and associated with blunt abdominal injuries and handlebar injuries in the pediatric population. A 13-year-old boy presented with multiple traumatic injuries and hemodynamic instability after a high-speed motor vehicle accident. His injuries consisted of massive traumatic abdominal wall hernia (grade 4) with bowel injury and perforation, blunt aortic injury, a Chance fracture, hemopneumothorax, and a humeral shaft fracture. Initial surgical management included partial resection of the terminal ileum, sigmoid colon, and descending colon. Laparostomy was managed with negative pressure wound therapy. The patient underwent skin-only primary closure of the abdominal wall and required multiple returns to theatre for debridement, dressing changes, and repair of other injuries. Various surgical management options for abdominal wall closure were considered. In total, he underwent 36 procedures. The multiple injuries had competing management aims, which required close collaboration between specialist clinicians to form an individualized management plan. The severity and complexity of this injury was of a scale not previously experienced by many clinicians and benefited from intrahospital and interhospital specialist collaboration. The ideal aim of primary surgical repair was not possible in this case of a giant abdominal wall defect.
Summary
Successful nonoperative management of a simultaneous high-grade splenic injury and devascularized kidney in Australia: a case report
Peter Thanh Tam Nguyen, Jeremy M. Hsu
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):431-434.   Published online September 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0017
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Severe blunt injuries to isolated solid abdominal viscera have been previously managed nonoperatively; however, management algorithms for simultaneous visceral injuries are less well defined. We report a polytrauma case of a 33-year-old man involved in a motorbike collision who presented with left-sided chest and abdominal pain. Initial imaging demonstrated multiple solid organ injuries with American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade V splenic injury and complete devascularization of the left kidney. The patient underwent urgent angioembolic coiling of the distal splenic artery with successful nonoperative management of simultaneous grade V solid organ injuries.
Summary
Penetrating chest trauma from a “less lethal” bean bag in the United States: a case report
Gloria Sanin, Gabriel Cambronero, Megan E. Lundy, William T. Terzian, Martin D. Avery, Samuel P. Carmichael II, Maggie Bosley
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):421-424.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0021
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This case report presents the case of a 49-year-old man who presented to our level I trauma center after sustaining injuries in an altercation with local law enforcement in which he was shot with a less lethal bean bag and tased. In a primary survey, a penetrating left supraclavicular wound was noted in addition to a taser dart lodged in his flank. No other traumatic findings were noted in a secondary survey. Given hemodynamic stability, completion imaging was obtained, revealing a foreign body in the left lung, a left open clavicle fracture, a C5 tubercle fracture, a possible grade I left vertebral injury, and a left first rib fracture. Soft tissue gas was seen around the left subclavian and axillary arteries, although no definitive arterial injury was identified. The bean bag projectile was embedded in the parenchyma of the left lung on cross-sectional imaging. The patient underwent thoracotomy for removal of the projectile and hemostasis. A thoracotomy was chosen as the operative approach due to concerns about significant bleeding upon foreign body removal. A chest tube was placed and subsequently removed on postoperative day 5. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 7. At a 2-week outpatient follow-up visit, the patient was doing well. This case report is the first to describe this outcome for a drag-stabilized bean bag. Although law enforcement officers utilize bean bag projectiles as a “less lethal” means of crowd control and protection, these ballistics pose significant risk and can result in serious injury.
Summary
Free tissue transfer for reconstruction of axillary defects: two case reports
Asha Deepthi Bathini, Parvathi Ravula, Srinivas Jammula, Srikanth R, Priyanka Pereira
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):425-430.   Published online August 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0024
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Axillary defects need pliable, vascular tissue to cover the critical structures traversing the axilla and to allow near-normal range of motion in the shoulder. Although local flaps are the first choice, free tissue transfer is a good option when local tissues are injured or scarred. Herein, we report two cases of axillary defects that were reconstructed using anterolateral thigh free flaps. One was a post–electric burn axillary defect for which a thoracoacromial pedicle was used as the recipient, and the other was a posttraumatic axillary defect with the transverse cervical vessels as the recipient. In both patients, the flap survived well with no complications and resulted in adequate functional recovery. In large defects of the axilla with a scarcity of local tissues, free flaps can yield optimal results. The proper selection of recipient vessels and a donor flap with adequate pedicle length impact the outcomes of such reconstruction.
Summary
Bilateral distal femoral epiphyseal detachment in a young adult: a case report
Armand Yepie, Moctar Traore, Mensah Yaovi, Michel Anoumou
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):458-461.   Published online August 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0011
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Epiphyseal dislocations and fractures frequently occur in children and adolescents. However, these injuries seldom involve the distal femur, and bilateral cases are even rarer. We present an unusual case of bilateral epiphyseal detachment of the femur in a 21-year-old man who was involved in a traffic accident. Open reduction and fixation surgery were performed 5 days after the incident. The patient experienced favorable progress, with consolidation occurring at 3 months. No lower limb length discrepancies were observed at the 20-month follow-up. In summary, bilateral distal femoral epiphyseal detachment is an uncommon condition that can be effectively treated through surgical intervention.
Summary
Rare complication of skin necrosis after endoscopic debridement and cutaneo-fascial suture for a massive Morel-Lavallée lesion in Korea: a case report
Youngmin Kim, Jayun Cho, Myung Jin Jang, Kang Kook Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):304-309.   Published online August 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) is a pathologic fluid collection within an abnormally formed space, resulting from an internal degloving injury between the muscle fascia and subcutaneous fat layer. Due to its resistance to conservative treatments such as drainage or compression dressing, various therapeutic methods have been developed for MLL. However, no standardized guidelines currently exist. Recently, endoscopic debridement and cutaneo-fascial suture (EDCS) has been introduced for the treatment of MLL, particularly for large lesions resistant to conservative approaches. While this procedure is known to be effective, limited reports are available on potential complications. The authors present a case of skin necrosis following EDCS for a massive MLL.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury