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9 "Emergency medical services"
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Case Report
Use of helicopter emergency medical services with a physician on board in severe pediatric trauma in Korea: a case report
Yoonsuk Lee, Gunwoo Kim, Pil Young Jung
Received November 11, 2023  Accepted May 8, 2024  Published online June 14, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0080    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In Korea, helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) with a physician on board were introduced in September 2011, funded by both central and regional governments. HEMS was integrated into the Korean emergency medical system to address the need for EMS in remote rural areas. The present report describes 16-month-old twins who fell from the fifth floor of an apartment building, located approximately 100 km from the nearest level I trauma center. Utilizing HEMS along with initial emergency management by an emergency physician, the patients were transported to the level I trauma center within the critical “golden hour.” The children had sustained multiorgan injuries. Without intervention at the scene by an emergency physician, a fatal outcome was anticipated for both children. With the use of HEMS, one patient died, but the other survived with a good prognosis. The use of HEMS flights with an emergency physician on board may improve outcomes for pediatric patients with severe trauma in medically underserved rural areas.
Summary
Original Article
No frequency change of prehospital treatments by emergency medical services providers for traumatic cardiac arrest patients before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea: an observational study
Ju Heon Lee, Hyung Il Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):172-179.   Published online August 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0009
  • 1,208 View
  • 59 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) often has a poor prognosis despite rescue efforts. Although the incidence and mortality of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have increased, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has decreased in some countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the prehospital setting, immediate treatment of cardiac arrest is required without knowing the patient’s COVID-19 status. Because COVID-19 is usually transmitted through the respiratory tract, airway management can put medical personnel at risk for infection. This study explored whether on-scene treatments involving CPR for TCA patients changed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea.
Methods
This retrospective study used data from emergency medical services (EMS) run sheets in Gangwon Province from January 2019 to December 2021. Patients whose initial problem was cardiac arrest and who received CPR were included. Data in 2019 were classified as pre–COVID-19 and all subsequent data (from 2020 and 2021) as post–COVID-19. Age, sex, possible cause of cardiac arrest, and treatments including airway maneuvers, oropharyngeal airway (OPA) or i-gel insertion, endotracheal intubation (ETI), bag-valve mask (BVM) ventilation, intravenous (IV) line establishment, neck collar application, and wound dressing with hemostasis were investigated.
Results
During the study period, 2,007 patients received CPR, of whom 596 patients had TCA and 367 had disease-origin cardiac arrest (DCA). Among the patients with TCA, 192 (32.2%) were pre–COVID-19 and 404 (67.8%) were post–COVID-19. In the TCA group, prehospital treatments did not decrease. The average frequencies were 59.7% for airway maneuvers, 47.5% for OPA, 57.4% for BVM, and 51.3% for neck collar application. The rates of ETI, i-gel insertion, and IV-line establishment increased. The treatment rate for TCA was significantly higher than that for DCA.
Conclusions
Prehospital treatments by EMS workers for patients with TCA did not decrease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Instead, the rates of ETI, i-gel insertion, and IV-line establishment increased.
Summary
Case Report
A case report of field amputation: the rescue of an entrapped patient through the "doctor car" system
Byungchul Yu, Gil Jae Lee, Min A Lee, Kang Kook Choi, Jihun Gwak, Youngeun Park, Yong-Cheol Yoon, Jayun Cho, Seung Hwan Lee, Jungnam Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(Suppl 1):S27-S30.   Published online June 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0012
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  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In certain circumstances, invasive procedures such as creation of a surgical airway, insertion of a chest drain, intraosseous puncture, or amputation in the field are necessary. These invasive procedures can save lives. However, emergency medical service teams cannot perform such procedures according to the law in Korea. The upper arm of a 29-year-old male patient was stuck in a huge machine and the emergency medical service team could not rescue the patient. A doctor-car team was dispatched to the scene and the team performed the filed amputation to extricate the patient. He was brought to the trauma center immediately and underwent formal above-elbow amputation. Here we describe a case of field amputation to rescue a patient through a “doctor car” system, along with a literature review.
Summary
Original Articles
Comparative Evaluation of Emergency Medical Service Trauma Patient Transportation Patterns Before and After Level 1 Regional Trauma Center Establishment: A Retrospective Single-Center Study
Hyeong Seok Lee, Won Young Sung, Jang Young Lee, Won Suk Lee, Sang Won Seo
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(2):87-97.   Published online March 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0021
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

This study examined emergency medical service (EMS) transportation patterns for adult trauma patients before and after establishing a level 1 regional trauma center (RTC) and to evaluate the transportation approach after prehospital severity screening.

Methods

This was a retrospective observational study of trauma patients aged ≥18 years admitted via EMS to the emergency department or a level 1 RTC, 1 year before to 3 years after RTC establishment. Patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) in the patient registration system were selected. Analyses were performed to determine transportation pattern changes by comparing patients pre- and post-RTC establishment and by yearly comparisons over the 4-year study period using the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test.

Results

Overall, 3,587 patients were included. The mean ISS was higher in the post-RTC group (n=2,693; 10.63±8.90, median 9.00) than in the pre-RTC group (n=894; 9.44±8.20, median 8.00; p<0.001). The mean transportation distance (9.84±13.71, median 5.80 vs. 13.12±16.15 km, median 6.00; p<0.001) was longer in the post-RTC group than in the pre-RTC group. Furthermore, proportionally fewer patients were transported from an area in the same city as the RTC after establishment (86.1% vs. 78.3%; p<0.001). Yearly comparisons revealed a gradually increasing trend in the hospital death rate (ptrend=0.031).

Conclusions

After establishing a level 1 RTC, the EMS transportation of severe trauma patients increased gradually along with the long-distance transportation of minor trauma patients. Therefore, improved prehospital EMS trauma severity assessments and level 1 RTC involvement in patient classification in the prehospital phase are necessary.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Establishment of Emergency Teaching Model and Optimization of Discrete Dynamic Calculation in Complex Virtual Simulation Environment
    He Li, Yuansong Sun, Kai Song, Chunlin Yin, Gengxin Sun
    Mathematical Problems in Engineering.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Model for Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Physical Trauma Patients Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques: Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea
    Seungseok Lee, Wu Seong Kang, Sanghyun Seo, Do Wan Kim, Hoon Ko, Joongsuck Kim, Seonghwa Lee, Jinseok Lee
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(12): e43757.     CrossRef
The Suitability of the CdC field Triage for Korean Trauma Care
Kang Kook Choi, Myung Jin Jang, Min A Lee, Gil Jae Lee, Byungchul Yoo, Youngeun Park, Jung Nam Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(1):13-17.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.013
  • 5,446 View
  • 118 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Accurate and appropriate prehospital field triage is essential for a trauma system. The Korean trauma system (established in 2014) uses the trauma field triage algorithm of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This study evaluated the suitability of the CDC field triage criteria for major trauma cases (injury severity score >15) in Korea.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study evaluated trauma patients who presented at the authors’ regional trauma center from January 1 to May 7, 2017. The undertriage and overtriage rates of each CDC field triage step were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated for each step.

Results

Among the 1,009 enrolled patients, 168 (16.7%) had major trauma. The undertriage/overtriage rates of each step (steps I, II, III, and IV) of CDC field triage were 9.2%/47.4%, 6.3%/50.8%, 4.5%/59.4%, and 5.3%/78.9%, respectively. The AUC values of each CDC triage step were 0.722, 0.783, 0.791, and 0.615, respectively. The AUC values of the separate components of each step (physiologic criteria, anatomic criteria, mechanism-of-injury criteria, and special considerations) were 0.722, 0.648, 0.647, and 0.456, respectively.

Conclusions

The CDC field triage system is acceptable, but not ideal, for Korean trauma care. If we follow the protocol, it would be preferable to omit step IV. The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale may be a good indicator for in-hospital triage. However, a new triage protocol that is simple to estimate on-scene while having good performance should be developed.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Transport to Trauma Centers on Survival Outcomes Among Severe Trauma Patients in Korea: Nationwide Age-Stratified Analysis
    Hakrim Kim, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jeong Ho Park, Tae Han Kim, Stephen Gyung Won Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prehospital triage in emergency medical services system: A scoping review
    Kisook Kim, Booyoung Oh
    International Emergency Nursing.2023; 69: 101293.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of the Suitability of Trauma Triage According to Physiological Criteria in Korea
    Gil Hwan Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Hohyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Sung Jin Park, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Dong Yeon Ryu, Kang Ho Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Na Hyeon Lee, Il Jae Wang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2022; 12(3): 120.     CrossRef
Characteristics and Outcomes of Trauma Patients via Emergency Medical Services
Dae Hyun Cho, Jae Gil Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):120-125.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.120
  • 3,592 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The aim of this study was to identify clinical outcome and characteristics of trauma patients via emergency medical services (EMS).

Methods

Medical records of the trauma patients visiting the emergency department were retrospectively collected and analyzed from January 2015 to June 2016 in the single institution. Of 529 registered patients, 371 patients were transported by - were enrolled. The parameters including age, gender, injury mechanism, Glasgow coma scale on arrival, presence of shock (systemic blood pressure <90 mmHg) on arrival, time to arrival from accident to emergency room (ER), need for emergency procedures such as operation or angioembolization, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, injury severity score (ISS), the trauma and injury severity score, revised trauma score (RTS), length of stay, and mortality rate were collected. The SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for the data analysis.

Results

Arrival time from the field to the ER was significantly shorter in EMS group. However, overall outcomes including mortalities, length of stay in the ICU and hospital were same between both groups. Age, ISS, RTS, and injury mechanisms were significantly different in both groups. ISS, RTS, and age showed significant influence on mortality statistically (p<0.05).

Conclusions

The time to arrival of EMS was fast but had no effect on length of hospital stay, mortality rate. Further research that incorporates pre-hospital factors influence clinical outcomes should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of such a system in trauma care of Korea.

Summary
Association between Helicopter Versus Ground Emergency Medical Services in Inter-Hospital Transport of Trauma Patients
Kyeong Guk Kang, Jin Seong Cho, Jin Ju Kim, Yong Su Lim, Won Bin Park, Hyuk Jun Yang, Geun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(3):108-114.   Published online September 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.3.108
  • 2,160 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
To improve outcome of severe trauma patient, the shortening of transport time is needed. Although helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is still a subject of debate, it must also be considered for trauma system. The aim of this study is to assess whether transport method (HEMS versus ground EMS) is associated with outcome among inter-hospital transport.
METHODS
All trauma patients transported to regional emergency center by either HEMS or ground EMS from September 2011 to September 2014. We have classified patients according to two groups by transport method. Age younger than 15 years and self-discharged patients were excluded.
RESULTS
A total of 427 patients were available for analysis during this period. 60 patients were transported by HEMS and 367 patients were transported by ground EMS. HEMS group had higher mortality than ground EMS group (23.3% vs 3.5%; p<0.001), and included more patients with excess mortality ratio adjusted injury severity score (EMR-ISS)above 25 (91.7% vs 48.8%; p<0.001). In the multivariable regression analysis, HEMS was not associated with improved outcome compared with ground EMS, but only EMR-ISS was associated with a mortality of patients (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.09).
CONCLUSION
In this study, helicopter emergency medical services transport was not associated with a decreased of mortality among the trauma patients who inter-hospital transported to the regional emergency center.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reduced Mortality in Severely Injured Patients Using Hospital-based Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Interhospital Transport
    Oh Hyun Kim, Young-Il Roh, Hyung-Il Kim, Yong Sung Cha, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Sung Oh Hwang, Kang Hyun Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2017; 32(7): 1187.     CrossRef
Measure of Agreement between Prehospital EMS Personnel and Hospital Staffs using Guidelines for Field Triage of Injured Patients
Dae Kon Kim, Ki Jeong Hong, Hyun Noh, Won Pyo Hong, Yu Jin Kim, Sang Do Shin, Ju Ok Park
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):126-132.
  • 1,233 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The field trauma triage for injured patients is essential for trauma care system. In this study, agreement of patient evaluation between by prehospital EMS personnel and by hospital staffs and the appropriateness of prehospital triage were evaluated.
METHODS
This observational study was conducted from September to October 2012 for 5 weeks. During this period, EMT evaluated patient's severity according to guideline for field triage and recorded. Same guideline was applied in 26 hospitals for patients with EMS use. Kappa statistics were used to measure agreement for each item of guideline. Finally, over-triage and under-triage rate of EMT were calculated.
RESULTS
During study period, total 3,106 patients were transferred to 26 hospital emergency departments with EMS use. Kappa statistics for "vital signs" items were 0.45 for mentality lower than V and 0.44 for systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg as a moderate agreement. In "anatomy of injury" items Kappa statistics were very low. In "mechanism of injury" items Kappa statistics were 0.28 for high-rise fall down and 0.27 for high energy traffic accident but in other items Kappa statistics were very low. 362 patients (12.0%) were over-triaged and 281 patients (9.3%) were under-triaged.
CONCLUSION
Field triage can be applied but need to evaluate and modify in order to become accurate and sensitive for decision of transportation.
Summary
Evaluation of the Triage by Emergency Medical Technicians by Using Trauma Score for Occupant Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Collisions
Sang Chul Kim, Byung Woo Kim, Yang Ju Tak, Sang Hee Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(3):89-98.
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  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The assessment of trauma patients in the prehospital setting is difficult, but appropriate field triage is critical to the prognosis of trauma patients. We sought to evaluate the triage given by the emergency medical technicians (EMTs) using the trauma score to patients injured in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs).
METHODS
From June 2012 to July 2012, questionnaires were distributed to EMTs, who had transported injured patients to the study hospital. Scene records, photos of the damaged vehicle, and ambulance run sheets were used to provide physiologic, physical, and mechanistic information about the MVC. To evaluate the appropriateness of the injury assessment by EMTs, we compared their impressions with the hospital's final diagnosis within a 3 level triage system comprising both the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) and the injury severity score (ISS). Kappa (k) was calculated to evaluate the agreement between the triage by EMTs and the triage based on hospital's final diagnosis.
RESULTS
A total of 91 patients were analyzed by 31 EMTs. The percentage of males was 57.1%, the mean age was 44.5, and the mean MAIS and ISS were 2.7 and 16.6 respectively. While EMTs correctly diagnosed patient injuries to the extremities in 35.7%, and to the neck in 32.1%, pelvic injuries were missed in 80.0%. The agreement between the triage by the EMTs and the triage based on the hospital's final diagnosis was 62.6%(k=0.366) by the MAIS and 50.5%(k=0.234) by the ISS. The kappa value was higher in EMT-I than in EMT-II.
CONCLUSION
In MVC, the assessment of injured patients by EMT-I was more appropriate, and the 3-level triage method based on the MAIS could contribute to a more accurate triage. Prospective studies to search for appropriate methods of field triage are required for programming practical education for EMTs.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury