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Case Reports
Successful minimally invasive management using transcatheter arterial embolization in a hemodynamically stable elderly patient with mesenteric vascular injury in a hybrid emergency room system in Korea: a case report
So Ra Ahn, Joo Hyun Lee, Sang Hyun Seo, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):435-440.   Published online July 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0018
  • 2,164 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Mesenteric injury occurs rarely in cases associated with blunt abdominal trauma. Despite its low incidence, mesenteric injury can lead to fatal outcomes such as hypovolemic shock due to hemoperitoneum or sepsis due to intestinal ischemia, or perforation-related peritonitis. For mesenteric injuries, especially those involving massive bleeding, intestinal ischemia, and perforation, the standard treatment is surgery. However, in the case of operative management, it should be borne in mind that there is a possibility of complications and mortality during and after surgery. The usefulness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is well known in solid organs but is controversial for mesenteric injury. We present a 75-year-old man with mesenteric injury due to blunt abdominal trauma. Initial abdominal computed tomography showed no hemoperitoneum, but a mesenteric contusion and pseudoaneurysm with a diameter of 17 mm were observed near the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. Since there were no findings requiring emergency surgery such as free air or intestinal ischemia, it was decided to perform nonoperative management with TAE using microcoils in hybrid emergency room system. TAE was performed successfully, and there were no complications such as bleeding, bowel ischemia, or delayed bowel perforation. He was discharged on the 23rd day after admission with percutaneous catheter drainage for drainage of mesenteric hematoma. The authors believe that treatment with TAE for highly selected elderly patients with mesenteric injuries has the positive aspect of minimally invasive management, considering the burden of general anesthesia and the various avoidable intraoperative and postoperative complications.
Summary
Submental intubation using laparoscopic trocar in zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture surgery in Korea: a case report
Hyejin Do, Chunui Lee, Hyeon Don Hong, Hyejin Hong, Hyun Kyo Lim, Sujin Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):128-132.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0036
  • 1,876 View
  • 50 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Submental intubation is an effective alternative technique for airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma. Compared with tracheostomy, it is less invasive, but has risks associated with potential airway compromise such as hypoxia due to tube obstruction, collapse, and kinking. To shorten procedure time and ensure a reinforced tube lumen, we used a laparoscopic trocar as a new device for submental intubation. A 54-year-old male patient sustained a zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture and was scheduled to undergo open reduction and internal fixation. We performed intraoral intubation and made a small 1-cm incision at the submandibular midline. After dissection of the tissue from the incision site, a reinforced tube was passed using a 12-mm laparoscopic trocar. The procedure took about 5 minutes, and apnea time from disconnecting the breathing circuit and passing through the internal lumen of the trocar until it was reconnected to the ventilator was 1 minute 5 seconds. Using a laparoscopic trocar for submental intubation can reduce the time required for dissection, prevent luminal occlusion complications due to soft tissues or blood clots in the endotracheal tube, and decrease soft tissue damage.
Summary
Acute pyomyositis of the adductor magnus muscle involving the posterior and lateral thigh compartments: a case report of diagnosis and management
Rajesh Bawale, Jay Watson, Karshe Yusuf, Dilip Pillai, Bijayendra Singh
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):139-143.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0022
  • 2,287 View
  • 39 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bacterial infection of skeletal muscle can lead to the formation of abscesses. Primary pyomyositis is typically seen in tropical countries, and Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest causative organism. We present a case of acute adductor magnus muscle abscess (pyomyositis) with spread to adjacent thigh compartments via the perforators without iliopsoas muscle involvement. Due to the involvement of the entire thigh compartment, systemic antibiotic treatment alone was insufficient, whereas surgical drainage improved the clinical picture. The aetiological organism was S. aureus. Herein, we report the case of a patient who had primary pyomyositis, rather than a secondary type, that spread to the posterior and lateral aspect of the thigh through the second and third perforators, which pierce the adductor magnus muscle belly before entering the femur.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Wheel of misfortune: A unique case of MRSA pyomyositis of the adductor muscle group from blunt unicycle trauma
    Jordan I. Gaelen, Toluwalase Awoyemi, Emmanuel Okematti, Meera Ramanathan
    Clinical Case Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Non-Operative Management with Angioembolization of Grade IV and V Renal Injuries in a Hybrid Emergency Room System
So Ra Ahn, Sang Hyun Seo, Joo Hyun Lee, Chan Yong Park
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(3):191-197.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0034
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  • 85 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Renal injuries occur in more than 10% of patients who sustain blunt abdominal injuries. Non-operative management (NOM) is the established treatment strategy for lowgrade (I–III) renal injuries. However, despite some evidence that NOM can be successfully applied to high-grade (IV, V) renal injuries, it remains unclear whether NOM is appropriate in such cases. The authors report two cases of high-grade renal injuries that underwent NOM after embolization in a hybrid emergency room (ER) system with a 24/7 in-house interventional radiology (IR) team. A 29-year-old male visited Wonkwang University Hospital Regional Trauma Center complaining of right abdominal pain after being hit by a rope. Computed tomography (CT) was performed 16 minutes after arrival, and the CT scan indicated a grade V right renal injury. Arterial embolization was initiated within 31 minutes of presentation. A 56-year-old male was transferred to Wonkwang University Hospital Regional Trauma Center with a complaint of right flank pain. He had initially presented to a nearby hospital after falling from a 3-m height. Thanks to the key CT images sent from the previous hospital prior to the patient’s arrival, angiography was performed within 8 minutes of the patient’s arrival and arterial embolization was completed within 25 minutes. Both patients were treated successfully through NOM with angioembolization and preserved kidneys. Hematoma in the first patient and urinoma in the second patient resolved with percutaneous catheter drainage. The authors believe that the hybrid ER system with an in-house IR team could contribute to NOM and kidney preservation even in high-grade renal injuries.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Endovascular embolization of persistent liver injuries not responding to conservative management: a narrative review
    Simon Roh
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2023; 36(3): 165.     CrossRef
Surgically Removed Intrapulmonary Shotgun Pellet without Traumatic Hemopneumothorax
Soo Young Yoon, Young Hoon Sul
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(1):66-69.   Published online March 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0026
  • 3,172 View
  • 93 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

When treating firearms injuries, knowledge of the proper management is important because these injuries have high morbidity and mortality. However, due to strict gun safety regulations, surgeons in Asia often have limited experiences with gunshot wound management. Recently, the authors had the experience of removing a bullet that did not cause hemopneumothorax, but remained in the lung parenchyma. Due to the risk of complications that could occur if the bullet was not removed, surgical treatment was eventually performed to remove the bullet. A literature review was needed to determine whether this treatment was appropriate. We concluded that removing the bullet could prevent incidental complications. In this regard, the authors report a case along with a review of the relevant literature to suggest appropriate treatment directions for surgeons who do not have experience with gunshot wounds.

Summary
Special Article
Part 3. Clinical Practice Guideline for Airway Management and Emergency Thoracotomy for Trauma Patients from the Korean Society of Traumatology
Chan Yong Park, O Hyun Kim, Sung Wook Chang, Kang Kook Choi, Kyung Hak Lee, Seong Yup Kim, Maru Kim, Gil Jae Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(3):195-203.   Published online September 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0050
  • 10,346 View
  • 184 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

The following key questions and recommendations are presented herein: when is airway intubation initiated in severe trauma? Airway intubation must be initiated in severe trauma patients with a GCS of 8 or lower (1B). Should rapid sequence intubation (RSI) be performed in trauma patients? RSI should be performed in trauma patients to secure the airway unless it is determined that securing the airway will be problematic (1B). What should be used as an induction drug for airway intubation? Ketamine or etomidate can be used as a sedative induction drug when RSI is being performed in a trauma patient (2B). If cervical spine damage is suspected, how is cervical protection achieved during airway intubation? When intubating a patient with a cervical spine injury, the extraction collar can be temporarily removed while the neck is fixed and protected manually (1C). What alternative method should be used if securing the airway fails more than three times? If three or more attempts to intubate the airway fail, other methods should be considered to secure the airway (1B). Should trauma patients maintain normal ventilation after intubation? It is recommended that trauma patients who have undergone airway intubation maintain normal ventilation rather than hyperventilation or hypoventilation (1C). When should resuscitative thoracotomy be considered for trauma patients? Resuscitative thoracotomy is recommended for trauma patients with penetrating injuries undergoing cardiac arrest or shock in the emergency room (1B).

Summary
Original Articles
Essential Factors in Predicting the Need for Angio-Embolization in the Acute Treatment of Pelvic Fracture with Hemorrhage
Seok-Won Yang, Hee-Gon Park, Sung-Hyun Kim, Sung-Hyun Yoon, Seung-Gwan Park
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(2):101-106.   Published online June 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2019.008
  • 3,253 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The purpose of this study was to determine the essential factors for prompt arrangement of angio-embolization in patients with pelvic ring fractures.

Methods

A total of 62 patients with pelvic ring fractures who underwent angio-embolization in Dankook University Hospital from March 2013 to June 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 38 men and 24 women with a mean age of 59.8 years. The types of pelvic ring fractures were categorized according to the Tile classification. Patient variables included sex, initial hemoglobin concentration, initial systolic blood pressure, transfused packed red blood cells within 24 hours, Injury Severity Score (ISS), mortality rate, length of hospital stay, and time to angio-embolization.

Results

The most common pelvic fracture pattern was Tile type B (n=34, 54.8%). The mean ISS was 27.3±10.9 with 50% having an ISS ≥25. The mean time to angio-embolization from arrival was 173.6±89 minutes. Type B (180.1±72.3 minutes) and type C fractures (174.7±91.3 minutes) required more time to angio-embolization than type A fractures (156.6±123 minutes). True arterial bleeding was identified in types A (35.7%), B (64.7%), and C (71.4%).

Conclusions

It is important to save time to reach the angio-embolization room in treating patients with pelvic bone fractures. Trauma surgeons need to consider prompt arrangement of angio-embolization when encountering Tile type B or C pelvic fractures due to the high risk of true arterial bleeding.

Summary
Treatment Option for High Grade Spleen Injury and Predictive Factors for Non-operative Management
Joung Won Na, Jung Nam Lee, Byung Chul Yu, Min A Lee, Jae Jung Park, Gil Jae Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(3):91-97.   Published online October 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.3.91
  • 2,114 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The prognostic factors of non-operative management (NOM) in high-grade spleen injuries have been extensively studied, but factors that would help treatment decisions are lacking. We compared the characteristics of the patients to identify the factors affecting treatment choices.
METHODS
This is a review of 207 blunt spleen injury patients from January 2004 to December 2013. We compared clinical features and mortality between surgery and NOM, and used multivariate regression analysis to find the factor most strongly associated with prognosis.
RESULTS
Of the 207 patients, 107 had high-grade spleen injury patents (grade III or above). Of these, 42 patients underwent surgery and 65 patients underwent NOM. The mortality was 7% following surgery, 3% with NOM. The amount of packed red blood cells transfused in the first 24 hours and spleen injury grade were associated with management type, and mortality was highly associated with activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and spleen injury grade.
CONCLUSIONS
The grade of spleen injury was associated with management and mortality, so correctly assessing the spleen injury grade is important.
Summary
Case Report
Fat Embolism Syndrome - Three Case Reports and Review of the Literature
Leonidas Grigorakos, Ioannis Nikolopoulos, Stamatina Stratouli, Anastasia Alexopoulou, Eleftherios Nikolaidis, Eleftherios Fotiou, Daria Lazarescu, Ioannis Alamanos
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(3):107-111.   Published online October 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.3.107
  • 3,050 View
  • 67 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
The fat embolism syndrome (FES) represents a condition, usually with traumatic etiology, which may pose challenges to diagnosis while its treatment usually requires supportive measures in the intensive care units (ICUs). The clinical criteria, including respiratory and cerebral dysfunction and a petechial rash, along with imaging studies help in diagnosis. Here we present three case reports of young male who developed FES and were admitted to our ICUs after long bones fractures emerging after vehicle crashes and we briefly review FES literature. All patients' treatment was directed towards: 1) the restoration of circulating volume with fresh blood and/or plasma; 2) the correction of acidosis; and 3) immobilization of the affected part. All patients recovered and were released to the orthopedic wards. The incidence of cases of patients with FES admitted in our ICUs records a significant decrease. This may be explained in terms effective infrastructure reforms in Greece which brought about significant improvement in early prevention and management.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Late-onset isolated cerebral fat embolism syndrome after a simple tibial plateau fracture: a rare case report
    Ta-Li Hsu, Tien-Chi Li, Fei-Pi Lai, Ming Ouhyoung, Chih-Hung Chang, Cheng-Tzu Wang
    Journal of International Medical Research.2021; 49(7): 030006052110284.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Surgical Management of Traumatic Liver Injury
Sun Wook Han, Hwa Soo Lee, Sang Ho Bae, Gil Ho Kang, Sung Yong Kim, Moo Jun Baek, Moon Soo Lee, Hyung Chul Kim, Moo Sik Cho, Chang Ho Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2006;19(1):21-27.
  • 1,139 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The liver is one of the most commonly injured organs by blunt or penetrating abdominal trauma. Patients with liver injury can be treated by using nonoperative or operative management. The aim of this study was to study patients with traumatic liver injury who were treated by using operative management.
METHODS
Ninety-eight patients with traumatic liver injury underwent surgical treatment from January 1995 to December 2004 at Soonchunhyang University Cheonan hospital. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively, and demographic, clinical, operative, and postoperative datas were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS
Among the patients with operative management, the peak incidence was in the third and the fourth decades. The male-to-female ratio was 1.9:1. The most frequent injury mechanism was blunt trauma (85.7%). Abdominal computed tomography was the diagnostic modality used most frequently. Severe liver injury above Grade III was seen in 80.6% of all patients, and long bone fracture was the most common combined injury. Patients were managed by using various techniques, including simple closure, liver resection, and perihepatic packing. Pulmonary complications were the most common postoperative complications (35.7%). the overall mortality rate was 17.3%. Between the survival group and the expired group, the amount of transfusion for the expired group was statistically more than that for the survival group.
CONCLUSION
Operative management is an effective treatment modality for hemodynamically unstable patients with severe traumatic liver injury. The amount of transfusion is a significant prognostic factor for survival.
Summary
A Clinical Analysis of Abdominal Stab Wounds
Jiyeon Park, Min Chung, Yeongdon Lee, Jungnam Lee, Woonki Lee, Yeonho Park, Jungheum Baek, Heunggyu Park, Keonkuk Kim, Jinmo Kang, Sangtae Choi, Wonsuk Lee, Seungyoun Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):134-141.
  • 1,150 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A classic approach to abdominal stab wounds has been a routine laparotomy for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment. However, management protocols for abdominal stab wounds are still contentious in most trauma centers. We examined the relationship between the character of the stab wound and the injured intraabdominal organs by retrospectively analyzing the medical records of patients with abdominal stab wounds admitted to Gil hospital, and the findings for our patients are then confronted with a review of the literature. We aimed to propose proper management protocols to approach abdominal stab wounds.
METHODS
The medical records of all 80 patients sustaining abdominal stab wounds, admitted at the Department of Surgery, Gil Hospital, Gachon Medical School, from January 2004 to December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. All the abdominal stab wounds were collated based on the site and the character of the injury, investigations performed on admission, results of investigations, operations performed and findings at the time of the operation.
RESULTS
The most prevalent age group was patients in their forties and the average age of the patients was 41 years for both genders. The stab wounds were most commonly located at the periumbilical area (16.9%), followed by the epigastric area (15.6%), and 18.2% of the patients had multiple wounds. The most commonly eviscerated organ was the omentum (9 out of 16 cases); 61.7% of non-eviscerated patients underwent a therapeutic laparotomy while 81.3% of eviscerated patients underwent a therapeutic laparotomy. The small bowel was the most commonly injured organ (22.7%, 17 out of 75 injuries). The review revealed a relatively common diaphragmatic injury in abdominal stab wound patients (8 cases, 10.5%). The average hospital stay was 11 days.
CONCLUSION
This review revealed commonly eviscerated and injured intraabdominal organs in abdominal stab wound patients and their relationship with a therapeutic laparotomy. Although the management is still controversial, the authors suggest indications for an immediate laparotomy and a protocol for managing abdominal stab wounds. Hemodynamic instability and peritoneal irritation signs are definite indicators for an immediate laparotomy, but the review revealed intraabdominal organ evisceration alone not to be a statistically significant factor. In addition, the authors suggest that abnormal CT findings can be valuable for making a decision on management of hemodynamically stable stab wound patients. Further study may clarify a role for a more selective approach to operative intervention and for a more extensive use of selective observation.
Summary
Case Report
Conservative Management of a Duodenal Perforation after Trauma
Jeung Seuk Yoon
J Trauma Inj. 2012;25(4):271-274.
  • 1,055 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Duodenal perforation has a high incidence of complications and mortality if not detected and treated early. Delayed diagnosis of duodenal perforation is frequent because patients rarely complain of any symptoms. We report a case of duodenal perforation that appeared after trauma and was cured by using conservative treatment.
Summary
Original Article
The Choice of Management in Patients with Splenic Blunt Trauma: A Single Center Study
Ji Young Jang, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Gil Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(4):280-285.
  • 998 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Nowadays, non-operative management increases in patients with blunt splenic injury due to development of diagnostic and interventional technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the management in patients with blunt splenic injury and effect of clinical state such as shock on the choice of management.
METHODS
From April 2007 to July 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of fifty patients who had splenic injury after blunt trauma. The demographic characteristics, American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grade of splenic injury, management method (emergency operation, angiographic embolization or observation) and clinical outcome were analyzed.
RESULTS
The mean age was 41.5+/-21.4 years and male was 44(88%). Twenty patients(40%) were in shock condition initially and five patients(10%) underwent emergency operation due to hemodynamic instability. Emergency angiographic embolization was performed in 20 patients(40%) and 25 patients were managed conservatively. When patients were divided into shock group (SG) and non-shock group (NSG), Patients in SG had significantly higher serum lactate level and base deficit than NSG (lactate; 4.5+/-3.4 mmol/L, base deficit; 5.8+/-4.4 mmol/L vs 1.9+/-1.4 mmol/L, 2.8+/-2.5 mmol/L, p=0.007, p=0.013). There was no significant difference of AAST grade and contrast blush rate in abdomen CT between two groups. Among 45 patients with non-operative management, four patients(8.9%) got delayed angiographic embolization and 3 patient died from companied organ injury.
CONCLUSION
Non-operative management can be acceptable management option in patients with splenic blunt trauma under intensive hemodynamic monitoring.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury