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6 "Pneumonia"
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Original Article
Clinical implications of the newly defined concept of ventilator-associated events in trauma patients
Tae Yeon Lee, Jeong Woo Oh, Min Koo Lee, Joong Suck Kim, Jeong Eun Sohn, Jeong Hwan Wi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):76-83.   Published online December 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0064
  • 2,118 View
  • 76 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with mechanical ventilation. In 2013, the new concept of ventilator- associated events (VAEs) replaced the traditional concept of ventilator-associated pneumonia. We analyzed risk factors for VAE occurrence and in-hospital mortality in trauma patients who received mechanical ventilatory support.
Methods
In this retrospective review, the study population comprised patients admitted to the Jeju Regional Trauma Center from January 2020 to January 2021. Data on demographics, injury characteristics, and clinical findings were collected from medical records. The subjects were categorized into VAE and no-VAE groups according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network VAE criteria. We identified risk factors for VAE occurrence and in-hospital mortality.
Results
Among 491 trauma patients admitted to the trauma center, 73 patients who received ventilator care were analyzed. Patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3 had a 4.7-fold higher VAE rate (odds ratio [OR], 4.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–17.9), and those with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <75 mL/min/1.73 m2 had 4.1-fold higher odds of VAE occurrence (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.32–14.1) and a nearly 4.2-fold higher risk for in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.30–14.3). The median VAE-free duration of patients with chest AIS ≥3 was significantly shorter than that of patients with chest AIS <3 (P=0.013).
Conclusions
Trauma patients with chest AIS ≥3 or GFR <75 mL/min/1.73 m2 on admission should be intensively monitored to detect at-risk patients for VAEs and modify the care plan accordingly. VAEs should be closely monitored to identify infections early and to achieve desirable results. We should also actively consider modalities to shorten mechanical ventilation in patients with chest AIS ≥3 to reduce VAE occurrence.
Summary
Case Report
Pulmonary Contusion Similar to COVID-19 Pneumonia
Seung Hwan Lee, Sung Youl Hyun, Yang Bin Jeon, Jung Nam Lee, Gil Jae Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(2):119-123.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0014
  • 10,281 View
  • 212 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread across the world and caused a pandemic. It can be transmitted by an infected person or an asymptomatic carrier and is a highly contagious disease. Prevention and early identification of COVID-19 are important to minimize the transmission of COVID-19. Chest computed tomography (CT) has a high sensitivity for detecting COVID-19, but relatively low specificity. Therefore, chest CT may be difficult to distinguish COVID-19 findings from those of other infectious (notably viral types of pneumonia) or noninfectious disease. Pulmonary contusion has also a lot of similarities on chest CT with COVID-19 pneumonia. We present trauma patients with pulmonary contusion whose CT scans showed findings similar to those of COVID-19, and we report our experience in the management of trauma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of chest CT scan findings between COVID-19 and pulmonary contusion in trauma patients based on RSNA criteria: Established novel criteria for trauma victims
    Hossein Abdolrahimzadeh Fard, Salahaddin Mahmudi-Azer, Qusay Abdulzahraa Yaqoob, Golnar Sabetian, Pooya Iranpour, Zahra Shayan, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Hamid Reza Abbasi, Shiva Aminnia, Maryam Salimi, Mohammad Mehdi Mahmoudi, Shahram Paydar, Roham Borazjani
    Chinese Journal of Traumatology.2022; 25(3): 170.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Analysis of Aspiration Risk Factors in Severe Trauma Patients: Based on Findings of Aspiration Lung Disease in Chest Computed Tomography
Gyu Jin Heo, Jungnam Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin-Seong Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(2):88-95.   Published online June 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0003
  • 5,109 View
  • 109 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The present study will identify risk factors for aspiration in severe trauma patients by comparing patients who showed a sign of aspiration lung disease on chest computed tomography (CT) and those who did not.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of the Korean Trauma Data Bank between January 2014 and December 2019 in a single regional trauma center. The inclusion criteria were patients aged ≥18 years with chest CT, and who had an Injury Severity Score ≥16. Patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)-chest score ≥1 and lack of medical records were excluded. General characteristics and patient status were analyzed.

Results

425 patients were included in the final analysis. There were 48 patients showing aspiration on CT (11.2%) and 377 patients showing no aspiration (88.7%). Aspiration group showed more endotracheal intubation in the ER (p=0.000) and a significantly higher proportion of severe Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (p=0.000) patients than the non-aspiration group. In AIS as well, the median AIS head score was higher in the aspiration group (p=0.046). Median oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the aspiration group (p=0.002). In a logistic regression analysis, relative to the GCS mild group, the moderate group showed an odds ratio (OR) for aspiration of 2.976 (CI, 1.024–8.647), and the severe group showed an OR of 5.073 (CI, 2.442–10.539).

Conclusions

Poor mental state and head injury increase the risk of aspiration. To confirm for aspiration, it would be useful to perform chest CT for severe trauma patients with a head injury.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Rapid Sequence Intubation Using the SEADUC Manual Suction Unit in a Contaminated Airway
    Matthew Stampfl, David Tillman, Nicholas Borelli, Tikiri Bandara, Andrew Cathers
    Air Medical Journal.2023; 42(4): 296.     CrossRef
  • Incidence and Predictors of Aspiration Pneumonia Among Traumatic Brain Injury in Northwest Ethiopia
    Sahlu Mitku Shiferaw, Emiru Ayalew Mengistie, Getasew Mulatu Aknaw, Abraham Tsedalu Amare, Kefyalew Amogne Azanaw
    Open Access Emergency Medicine.2022; Volume 14: 85.     CrossRef
The Type Analysis for Safety Accident of Water Sports Happening in River
Nam Eui Kim, Moo Eob Ahn, Jeong Yeol Seo, Dong Won Kim, Jeong Hyeok Kim, Hyung Ki Kim, Jae Hyun Han, Tae Hun Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):186-191.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.186
  • 3,548 View
  • 44 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Recently, as the number of people who enjoy water sports life in river or lake easy to accessible are increasing, that of the patients who are injured in water sports also does gradually. We intend to investigate the type of the injured patients of water sports and the riskiness of the sports in this study.

Methods

We retrospectively looked into the medical records of the patients who were injured in water sports and visited a general hospital in Gangwondo-province from 2010 to 2015.

Results

Total 146 patients came to the hospital during six years. Patients mostly occurred at younger ages, in summer, and on holidays, rather than weekdays. The most common lesions of injuries were faces (53 patients). The most common types of injuries were contusions (62 patients), followed by fractures (32 patients) and lacerations (26 patients). The most frequent fracture sites were the upper extremities (11 patients). Most of the trauma patients were mild, but a small number of patients with aspiration pneumonia occurred and their severity was higher than trauma patients.

Conclusions

In this study, facial injuries were most frequent in water sports injuries. In the fractures, upper extremities were the most common fractured lesions. In addition, even if there is no direct trauma, aspiration pneumonia is serious, so caution should be taken with protective equipment suitable for water sports.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Humerus Shaft Fractures Occurring in Fly Fishing Boat Riding: Injury Scene Analysis
    Hongri Li, Wan Sun Choi, Bong-gun Lee, Jae-hoo Lee, Younguk Park, Doohyung Lee
    The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine.2019; 37(4): 134.     CrossRef
Case Reports
Dental Prosthesis Causing Pneumonia in a Delirious Elderly Patient after Hip Fracture Surgery
Young Kyun Lee, Yong Chan Ha, Kyung Hoi Koo
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(3):97-100.
  • 958 View
  • 2 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We report a case of delayed diagnosed pneumonia due to an aspirated metallic crown, which had been detached from a molar tooth. Dental prosthesis should be checked and a careful review of the chest radiograph is mandatory when an elderly patient with delirium after hip fracture surgery develops pneumonia postoperatively.
Summary
Clinical Analysis of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP) in Blunt-chest-trauma Patients
Joong Hwan Oh, Il Hwan Park, Chun Sung Byun, Geum Suk Bae
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(4):291-296.
  • 1,079 View
  • 5 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Prolonged ventilation leads to a higher incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), resulting in weaning failure and increased medical costs. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical results and prognostic factors of VAP in patients with blunt chest trauma.
METHODS
From 2007 to 2011, one hundred patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours were divided into two groups: a VAP-negative group, (32 patients, mean age; 53 years, M:F=25:7) and a VAP-positive group, (68 patients, mean age; 60 years, M:F=56:12). VAP was diagnosed using clinical symptoms, radiologic findings and microorganisms. The injury severity score (ISS), shock, combined injuries, computerized tomographic pulmonary findings, transfusion, chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), ventilation time, stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays, complications such as sepsis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and microorganisms were analyzed. Chi square, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysies were used with SPSS 18 software.
RESULTS
Age, sex, ISS, shock and combined injuries showed no differences between the VAP - negative group and - positive group (p>0.05), but ventilation time, ICU and hospital stays, blood transfusion and complications such as sepsis or DIC showed significant differencies (p<0.05). Four patients(13%) showed no clinical symptoms eventhough blood cultures were positive. Regardless of VAP, mortality-related factors were shock (p=0.036), transfusion (p=0.042), COPD (p=0.029), mechanical ventilation time (p=0.011), ICU stay (p=0.032), and sepsis (p=0.000). Microorgnisms were MRSA(43%), pseudomonas(24%), acinetobacter(16%), streptococcus(9%), klebsiela(4%), staphillococus aureus(4%). However there was no difference in mortality between the two groups.
CONCLUSION
VAP itself was not related with mortality. Consideration of mortality-related factors for VAP and its aggressive treatment play important roles in improving patient outcomes.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury