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7 "Pneumothorax"
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Original Article
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Case Reports
Misinterpretation of a skin fold artifact as pneumothorax on the chest x-ray of a trauma patient in Korea: a case report
Yoojin Park, Eun Young Kim, Byungchul Yu, Kunwoo Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):86-88.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0050
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Misinterpreting radiographic findings can lead to unnecessary interventions and potential patient harm. The urgency required when responding to the compromised health of trauma patients can increase the likelihood of misinterpreting chest x-rays in critical situations. We present the case report of a trauma patient whose skin fold artifacts were mistaken for pneumothorax on a follow-up chest x-ray, resulting in unnecessary chest tube insertion. We hope to help others differentiate between skin folds and pneumothorax on the chest x-rays of trauma patients by considering factors such as location, shape, sharpness, and vascular markings.
Summary
A Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Case in Which Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Was Not Possible Due to Iatrogenic Pneumothorax after Unnecessary Central Catheterization
Hyung Il Kim, Seong Beom Oh
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(4):252-257.   Published online December 30, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2019.040
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  • 48 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is used to treat carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. However, untreated pneumothorax is an absolute contraindication for HBOT. More caution is needed with regard to monoplace hyperbaric chambers, as patient monitoring and life-saving procedures are impossible inside these chambers. Central catheterization is frequently used for various conditions, but unnecessary catheterization must be avoided because of the risk of infection and mechanical complications. Herein, we describe a case of CO poisoning in which iatrogenic pneumothorax developed after unnecessary subclavian central catheterization. The patient did not need to be catheterized, and HBOT could not be performed because of the pneumothorax. Hence, this case reminds us of basic—but nonetheless important—principles of catheterization.

Summary
Original Articles
Influence of Multiple Rib Fracture upon Traumatic Hemo-pneumothorax
Seung Joon Yang, Jewon Lee, Sang Chan Jin, Myeong Don Joo, Woo Ik Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):91-99.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Multiple rib fracture (MRF) and a hemopneumothorax accompany with most blunt chest traumas. We aimed to analyze the factors increasing the probability of a hemopneumothorax. In addition, other injuries accompanying MRF were analyzed.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 154 mutiple rib fracture patients who visited our hospital between January 2005 and December 2007. The medical records were reviewed for sex, age, mechanism of injury, location, number of fractures, distance of dislocated rib fragments, and presence of complications. We measured the distance of bony dislocations by using the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System).
RESULTS
The average number of rib fractures was 3.7+/-2.1, and the number of rib fractures significantly influenced the incidence of a hemothorax (p<0.001). The risk of a phemothorax was increased in a bilateral MRF compared to a unilateral MRF (p=0.027). The distance of dislocated rib fragments influenced the probability of a hemothorax significantly (p=0.018), and subcutaneous emphysema and lung contusion were significantly associated with a pneumothorax (p=0.021, p=0.036).
CONCLUSION
The number of MRFs did not influence the risk for a pneumothorax, but did influence the risk for a hemothorax. The laterality, distance of dislocation, also had an influence on the risk for a hemothorax. Also, subcutaneous emphysema and lung contusion were increased in cases with a pneumothorax. We must consider the possibility of a hemothorax even when the initial chest X-ray shows no evidence of a hemothorax. If a lung contusion is present, then an occult pneumothorax must be considered.
Summary
Needle Decompression for Trauma Patients: Chest Wall Thickness and Size of the Needle
Jeewan Kim, Jinwoo Jeong, Suck Ju Cho, Seokran Yeom, Sang Kyoon Han, Sungwook Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):63-67.
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  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A tension pneumothorax is a fatal condition that requires immediate intervention. Although a definitive treatment for a tension pneumothorax is a tube thoracostomy, needle decompression can provide temporary relief, that is lifesaving. The traditional procedure for needle decompression involves inserting a needle or catheter at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line. Recent evidence suggests that the commonly used catheters do not have sufficiently penetrate the chest wall. There are also claims that a lateral approach to needle decompression is easier and safer than the traditional anterior approach. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimal approach for needle decompression for the Korean population by measuring chest wall thicknesses at the points used for both the anterior and the lateral approaches.
METHODS
The chest wall thickness (CWT) of trauma victims who visited the Emergency Center of Pusan National University Hospital was measured by computed tomography (CT) images. The CWT was measured at the points used for the anterior and the lateral methods and was compared with the length of commonly used catheters, which is 45 mm.
RESULTS
The mean CWT at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line, was shorter than the CWT at the 5th intercostal space, the anterior axillary line. However, the percentage of patients whose CWT was greater than 45 mm was larger when measured anteriorly (8.2%) that when measure laterally (5.7%). Female patients and those older than 60 were more likely to have an anterior CWT greater than 45 mm (28.2% for females and 15.5% for those older than 60).
CONCLUSION
The percentage of trauma victims in Korea whose CWT is greater than 45 mm is lower than the values previously reported by other countries. However, females and older patients tend to have thicker chest walls, so the lateral approach would be suggested when performing needle decompression for such patients with suspected tension pneumothoraces.
Summary
Clinical Analysis of Old-aged Chest Trauma Patient and Traumatic Hemopneumothorax
Jung Tae Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(2):161-166.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to analyze chest-trauma patients and the old-aged patients with a traumatic hemopneumothorax.
METHODS
We reviewed the medical records of 101 chest-trauma patients admitted to the department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery from June 1999 to November 2008. We evaluated the general characteristics of the chest-trauma patient, especially those of old-aged patients with a traumatic hemopneumothorax.
RESULTS
Rib fracture was observed in 99 of the cases, the location distribution was right: left =261: 255, with right being dominant. Rib fractures commonly involved the 4th and the 7th rib. The average number of rib fractures was 5.1, and the average number of rib fractures in the old-aged patients was significantly higher than that in the non-old-aged patients (p=0.04). There were 17 cases of a hemopnuemothorax in old-aged patients, 52 cases in non-old-aged patients. The blood loss through the chest tube for old-aged patients was significantly more than that for the non-old-aged patients, and the initial hemoglobin level was lower in the old-aged patients.
CONCLUSION
Elderly trauma patients are more likely to die after trauma than other age groups. Even with relatively stable vital signs, invasive hemodynamic monitoring and intensive treatment are recommended.
Summary
Study of the Length of Needle Thoracostomy Catheter Needed for Patients with Chest Trauma
Sung Won Kang, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jung Bae Park, Kang Suk Seo, Jae Myung Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):1-4.
  • 1,113 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to evaluate the length of the catheter used in a needle thoracostomy for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax by measuring the chest wall thickness (CWT) in patients with chest trauma METHODS: A retrospective review of 201 patients with chest trauma who had been transported the emergency department in a tertiary university hospital in a metropolitan area between 1 January and 31 February 2007 was performed. The average CWT at the second intercostal space (ICS) in the midclavicular line (MCL) was measured by using a chest computed tomography scan.
RESULTS
As the left and the right mean CWTs were 3.4+/-1.0 cm and 3.4+/-1.0 cm, respectively, there was no significant statistical difference between them. The mean CWT of female patients was significantly higher than that of male patients (p=0.001). The mean CWT of patients under the age of 65 years was significantly thicker than that of the patients over the age of 65 years (p<0.001). Of the studied patients, 12 (6.0%) a CWT > 5 cm.
CONCLUSION
A 5 cm-length catheter in a needle thoracostomy may be insufficient for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax, so a catheter longer than 5 cm in length is needed.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury