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14 "Thoracic injuries"
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Original Articles
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
  • 1,174 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Clinical characteristics of patients with the hardware failure after surgical stabilization of rib fractures in Korea: a case series
Na Hyeon Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hohyun Kim, Gil Hwan Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):196-205.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0026
  • 1,778 View
  • 52 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) is widely used in patients with flail chests, and several studies have reported the efficacy of SSRF even in multiple rib fractures. However, few reports have discussed the hardware failure (HF) of implanted plates. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with HF after SSRF and further investigate the related factors.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent SSRF for multiple rib fractures at a level I trauma center in Korea between January 2014 and January 2021. We defined HF as the unintentional loosening of screws, dislocation, or breakage of the implanted plates. The baseline characteristics, surgical outcomes, and types of HF were assessed.
Results
During the study period, 728 patients underwent SSRF, of whom 80 (10.9%) were diagnosed with HF. The mean age of HF patients was 56.5±13.6 years, and 66 (82.5%) were men. There were 59 cases (73.8%) of screw loosening, 21 (26.3%) of plate breakage, 17 (21.3%) of screw migration, and seven (8.8%) of plate dislocation. Nine patients (11.3%) experienced wound infection, and 35 patients (43.8%) experienced chronic pain. A total of 21 patients (26.3%) underwent reoperation for plate removal. The patients in the reoperation group were significantly younger, had fewer fractures and plates, underwent costal fixation, and had a longer follow-up. There were no significant differences in subjective chest symptoms or lung capacity.
Conclusions
HF after SSRF occurred in 10.9% of the cases, and screw loosening was the most common. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk factors for SSRF failure.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Komplikationen nach operativer vs. konservativer Versorgung des schweren Thoraxtraumas
    Lars Becker, Marcel Dudda, Christof Schreyer
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2024; 127(3): 204.     CrossRef
Epidemiology and outcomes of patients with penetrating trauma in Incheon Metropolitan City, Korea based on National Emergency Department Information System data: a retrsopective cohort study
Youngmin Kim, Byungchul Yu, Se-Beom Jeon, Seung Hwan Lee, Jayun Cho, Jihun Gwak, Youngeun Park, Kang Kook Choi, Min A Lee, Gil Jae Lee, Jungnam Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):224-230.   Published online December 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0055
  • 1,873 View
  • 47 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Patients with penetrating injuries are at a high risk of mortality, and many of them require emergency surgery. Proper triage and transfer of the patient to the emergency department (ED), where immediate definitive treatment is available, is key to improving survival. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with penetrating torso injuries in Incheon Metropolitan City.
Methods
Data from trauma patients between 2014 and 2018 (5 years) were extracted from the National Emergency Department Information System. In this study, patients with penetrating injuries to the torso (chest and abdomen) were selected, while those with superficial injuries were excluded.
Results
Of 66,285 patients with penetrating trauma, 752 with injuries to the torso were enrolled in this study. In the study population, 345 patients (45.9%) were admitted to the ward or intensive care unit (ICU), 20 (2.7%) were transferred to other hospitals, and 10 (1.3%) died in the ED. Among the admitted patients, 173 (50.1%) underwent nonoperative management and 172 (49.9%) underwent operative management. There were no deaths in the nonoperative management group, but 10 patients (5.8%) died after operative management. The transferred patients showed a significantly longer time from injury to ED arrival, percentage of ICU admissions, and mortality. There were also significant differences in the percentage of operative management, ICU admissions, ED stay time, and mortality between hospitals.
Conclusions
Proper triage guidelines need to be implemented so that patients with torso penetrating trauma in Incheon can be transferred directly to the regional trauma center for definitive treatment.
Summary
Case Reports
Azygos and right superior intercostal vein injury secondary to blunt trauma: a case report
Nima Yaftian, Benjamin Dunne, Phillip Antippa
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(1):53-55.   Published online July 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0001
  • 1,869 View
  • 44 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Azygos vein injuries are rare consequences of blunt trauma. When there is high drainage output from a right-sided intercostal catheter, an azygos injury must be considered in the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 38-year-old male patient involved in a fall from a height during a motorcycle accident. Computed tomography demonstrated a large right-sided hemothorax and left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was transferred to the operating theatre and underwent a clamshell thoracotomy. A laceration in the azygos vein at the confluence of the arch of the azygos and the right superior intercostal vein was identified. Bleeding was controlled at the trifurcation. The patient survived and was discharged home on postoperative day 15.
Summary
Type B Aortic Dissection with Visceral Artery Involvement Following Blunt Trauma: A Case Report
Ahram Han, Min A Lee, Youngeun Park, Jin Mo Kang, Jung Ho Kim, Jungnam Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):206-211.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.206
  • 4,287 View
  • 58 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Aortic dissection caused by blunt trauma is a rare injury that can be complicated by malperfusion syndrome resulting from obstruction of branch vessels of the aorta. Here, we present a case of traumatic type B aortic dissection with right renal and small bowel ischemia, successfully managed by endovascular fenestration.

Summary
Original Articles
Prognosis of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures
Hee Beom Park, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Yeon Sik Jang
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):179-185.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.179
  • 10,969 View
  • 102 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Rib fracture is the most common complication of blunt thoracic trauma. We investigated the effect of rib fracture on pulmonary function in the conservatively treated patients.

Methods

From January 2000 to February 2017, we reviewed the records of 72 patients with rib fracture and pulmonary function tests were performed. According to the number of rib fractures, patients were classified into two groups: less than six fractured ribs (group A) and more than six fractured ribs (group B). The groups were compared concerning demographics, underlying diseases, associated thoracic injuries, surgery, mechanical ventilator times, days spent in the intensive care unit and pulmonary function test.

Results

There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic data between the two groups. Mean hospitalization was 13.5 days in group A and 27.0 days in group B (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the pulmonary function test.

Conclusions

We conclude that pulmonary function is restored by conservative treatment in patients with rib fractures even if the number of rib fractures increases. In patients with multiple rib fractures, studies comparing open rib fixation and conservative treatment of long term pulmonary function are required.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of chronic post-thoracotomy pain in patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Kun Hyung Kim, Chan Kyu Lee, Seon Hee Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Yu Kyung Shin, Junepill Seok, Hyun Min Cho
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Yoga—An Alternative Form of Therapy in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Mallikarjun Gunjiganvi, Purva Mathur, Minu Kumari, Karan Madan, Atin Kumar, Rajesh Sagar, Sushma Sagar, Amit Gupta, Biplab Mishra, Altaf Hussain Mir, Mohini Meti, Subodh Kumar
    World Journal of Surgery.2021; 45(7): 2015.     CrossRef
  • Medicolegal Evaluation of Long-Term Respiratory Functions in Patients Injured Due to Traffic Accidents
    Esra Dugral, Aydin Sanli, İsmail Ozgur Can
    Cureus.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Experiences of Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery in Trauma
Dongsub Noh, Chan kyu Lee, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(3):87-90.   Published online October 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.3.87
  • 2,060 View
  • 13 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Nowadays, Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) is widely used for its benefits, low post-operative pain, excellent anesthetic result and complete visualization of intrathoracic organs. Despite of these advantages, VATS has not yet been widely used in trauma patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of VATS in the chest trauma area.
METHODS
From January 2016 to December 2016, 203 patients underwent surgical treatment for chest trauma. Their medical records were analyzed retrospectively.
RESULTS
Eleven patients underwent thoracic surgery by VATS. Six patients were unstable vital sign in the emergency room. Two patients underwent emergency surgery and the rest patients underwent planned surgery. The common surgeries were VATS hematoma evacuation and wedge resection. There was no conversion to thoracotomy. The surgery proceeded without any problems for all patients.
CONCLUSIONS
VATS would be an effective diagnostic and therapeutic modality in chest trauma patients. It can be applied to retained hemothorax, persistent pneumothorax, suspicious diaphragm injury and even coagulation of bleeder.
Summary
Case Reports
Delayed Diaphragmatic Injury with Massive Hemothorax Due to Lower Rib Fracture
Woo Shik Kim, Joong Suck Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(2):79-82.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.2.79
  • 2,205 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Simple rib fracture is one of most common injury after blunt thoracic trauma found in approximately 7% to 40% of cases. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic injury with massive hemothorax after rib fracture is rare but a potentially life-threatening condition. We present a rare case of a 79-year-old male with delayed diaphragmatic injury with massive hemothorax due to fracture of the lower ribs. Under thoracoscopy, hemothorax was evacuated, diaphragmatic rupture was identified and repaired, and the lower ribs were fixed with metal plate (s). Although simple lower rib fractures may be the only clinical finding, close observation and monitoring are required because of the possibility of diaphragmatic and/or intraabdominal organ injury.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Fatal Delayed Hemothorax after Simple Rib Fracture
    Minju Lee, Sang Bum Lim, Hye Jeong Kim, Sohyung Park, Hongil Ha
    Korean Journal of Legal Medicine.2017; 41(2): 56.     CrossRef
Emergency Repair Using Cervico-median Sternotomy for Cervicothoracic Penetrating Injury
Hyun Joo Lee, Hyun Koo Kim, Young Ho Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):136-139.
  • 1,345 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A great variety of penetrating injuries is happening due to the increasing population and violence today. An optimal surgical approach is the key factor for successful repair of a complicated penetrating injury. A 23-yearold woman fell down the stairs from the second floor and received cervico-thoracic penetration injury due to a metalic bar. The metalic bar ruptured the right jugular vein and penetrated the left upper and lower lung. Under cervico-median sternotomy, neck vessels were repaired and the left thorax was successfully entered to repair the damaged lung through the mediastinal pleura. With this approach, the patient's position did not need to be changed during operation, while reduced the operation time compared to the conventional approach (cervical incision and standard thoracotomy).
Summary
Original Articles
Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Pulmonary Contusion with Traumatic Lung Cyst
Yong Hwan Kim, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Chung Kwon Kim, Yong Su Lim, Hyuk Jun Yang, Mi Jin Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):100-107.
  • 1,370 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A traumatic lung cyst (TLC) is a rare complication and is usually detected with a pulmonary contusion. This study attempted to identify the prognostic factors and the clinical characteristics for pulmonary contusion with TLCs.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and chest CT findings of 71 TLC patients who visited our hospital from January 2006 to December 2007. Patients were assessed for any clinical characteristics. We evaluated significant differences between the survival and the death groups for patients with a traumatic lung cyst.
RESULTS
The male-to-female ratio of patients with TLCs was 54:17, and the mean age of the patients was 37.70 +/- 19.78 years with 36.6% of the patients being under 30 years fo age. The cause of blunt thoracic trauma was mainly pedestrian traffic accidents (26.8%) and falls (25.4%). Associated conditions included pulmonary contusion in 68 patients (95.7%), hemopneumothorax in 63 patients (88.7%), and rib fracture in 52 patitents (73.2%). There was no consistent relationship between the number of TLCs and the pulmonary contusion score. The overall mortality rate of TLC patients was 26.8%. Death correlated with a need for ventilatory assistance, mean arterial pressure, worst mean arterial pressure in 24 hours, initial pH and base excess, worst pH and base excess in 24 hours, refractory shock, initial GCS score, and pulmonary contusion score.
CONCLUSION
The presence of the aforementioned predictors indicate serious injury, which is the main determinant of the outcome for thoracic injuries with TLCs.
Summary
Needle Decompression for Trauma Patients: Chest Wall Thickness and Size of the Needle
Jeewan Kim, Jinwoo Jeong, Suck Ju Cho, Seokran Yeom, Sang Kyoon Han, Sungwook Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):63-67.
  • 1,607 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A tension pneumothorax is a fatal condition that requires immediate intervention. Although a definitive treatment for a tension pneumothorax is a tube thoracostomy, needle decompression can provide temporary relief, that is lifesaving. The traditional procedure for needle decompression involves inserting a needle or catheter at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line. Recent evidence suggests that the commonly used catheters do not have sufficiently penetrate the chest wall. There are also claims that a lateral approach to needle decompression is easier and safer than the traditional anterior approach. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimal approach for needle decompression for the Korean population by measuring chest wall thicknesses at the points used for both the anterior and the lateral approaches.
METHODS
The chest wall thickness (CWT) of trauma victims who visited the Emergency Center of Pusan National University Hospital was measured by computed tomography (CT) images. The CWT was measured at the points used for the anterior and the lateral methods and was compared with the length of commonly used catheters, which is 45 mm.
RESULTS
The mean CWT at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line, was shorter than the CWT at the 5th intercostal space, the anterior axillary line. However, the percentage of patients whose CWT was greater than 45 mm was larger when measured anteriorly (8.2%) that when measure laterally (5.7%). Female patients and those older than 60 were more likely to have an anterior CWT greater than 45 mm (28.2% for females and 15.5% for those older than 60).
CONCLUSION
The percentage of trauma victims in Korea whose CWT is greater than 45 mm is lower than the values previously reported by other countries. However, females and older patients tend to have thicker chest walls, so the lateral approach would be suggested when performing needle decompression for such patients with suspected tension pneumothoraces.
Summary
Diagnostic Usefulness of Computed Tomography Compared to Conventional Chest X-Ray for Chest Trauma Patients
Kyu Ill Choi, Kang Suk Seo, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jung Bae Park, Jae Myung Chung, Jae Yoon Ahn, Seong Won Kang, Jae Hyuck Yi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(2):142-147.
  • 1,169 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Early diagnosis and management of therapeutic interventions are very important in chest trauma. Conventional chest X-rays (CXR) and computed tomography (CT) are the diagnostic tools that can be quickly implemented for chest trauma patients in the emergency department. In this study, the usefulness of the CT as a diagnostic measurement was examined by analyzing the ability to detect thoracic injuries in trauma patients who had visited the emergency department and undergone CXR and CT.
METHODS
This study involved 84 patients who had visited the emergency department due to chest trauma and who had undergone both CXR and CT during their diagnostic process. The patients' characteristics and early vital signs were examined through a retrospective analysis of their medical records, and the CXR and the CT saved in the Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS) were examined by a radiologist and an emergency physician to verify whether or not a lesion was present.
RESULTS
Pneumothoraxes, hemothoraxes, pneumomediastina, pulmonary lacerations, rib fractures, vertebral fractures, chest wall contusions, and subcutaneous emphysema were prevalently found in a statistically meaningful way (p<0.05) on the CT. Even though their statistical significance couldn't be verified, other disorders, including aortic injury, were more prevalently found by CT than by CXR.
CONCLUSION
CT implemented for chest trauma patients visiting the emergency department allowed disorders that couldn't be found on CXR to be verified, which helped us to could accurately evaluate patients.
Summary
Study of the Length of Needle Thoracostomy Catheter Needed for Patients with Chest Trauma
Sung Won Kang, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jung Bae Park, Kang Suk Seo, Jae Myung Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):1-4.
  • 1,141 View
  • 0 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to evaluate the length of the catheter used in a needle thoracostomy for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax by measuring the chest wall thickness (CWT) in patients with chest trauma METHODS: A retrospective review of 201 patients with chest trauma who had been transported the emergency department in a tertiary university hospital in a metropolitan area between 1 January and 31 February 2007 was performed. The average CWT at the second intercostal space (ICS) in the midclavicular line (MCL) was measured by using a chest computed tomography scan.
RESULTS
As the left and the right mean CWTs were 3.4+/-1.0 cm and 3.4+/-1.0 cm, respectively, there was no significant statistical difference between them. The mean CWT of female patients was significantly higher than that of male patients (p=0.001). The mean CWT of patients under the age of 65 years was significantly thicker than that of the patients over the age of 65 years (p<0.001). Of the studied patients, 12 (6.0%) a CWT > 5 cm.
CONCLUSION
A 5 cm-length catheter in a needle thoracostomy may be insufficient for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax, so a catheter longer than 5 cm in length is needed.
Summary
Case Report
A Case for Chest Wall Panetrating Injury by Nail Gun
Jae Jin Kim, Jin Hui Paik, Ji Hye Kim, Seung Baik Han, Sung Hyun Yun, Jun Sig Kim, Hyun Min Jung
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(1):26-29.
  • 1,159 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We describe the case of a 56-year-old man who had been shot by a pneumatic nail gun in the chest during work. He had removed the nail by himself immediately at the accident field. He visited to the emergency department of a local hospital and, after a simple dressing and simple history had been taken, he was referred to our emergency department for penetrating thoracic injury. Immediately, Transthoracic echocardiography were done and showed moderate hemopericardium. Patient had been hydrated and transported to the operating room. After cardiac wound repaired by midsternotomy, the patient was discharged on the 13th postoperative day without complications except mild mitral valve regurgitation.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury