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4 "Thoracostomy"
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Original Articles
Radiologic assessment of the optimal point for tube thoracostomy using the sternum as a landmark: a computed tomography‐based analysis
Jaeik Jang, Jae-Hyug Woo, Mina Lee, Woo Sung Choi, Yong Su Lim, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):37-47.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0058
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
This study aimed at developing a novel tube thoracostomy technique using the sternum, a fixed anatomical structure, as an indicator to reduce the possibility of incorrect chest tube positioning and complications in patients with chest trauma.
Methods
This retrospective study analyzed the data of 184 patients with chest trauma who were aged ≥18 years, visited a single regional trauma center in Korea between April and June 2022, and underwent chest computed tomography (CT) with their arms down. The conventional gold standard, 5th intercostal space (ICS) method, was compared to the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum method by analyzing CT images.
Results
When virtual tube thoracostomy routes were drawn at the mid-axillary line at the 5th ICS level, 150 patients (81.5%) on the right side and 179 patients (97.3%) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. However, at the lower 1/2 of the sternum level, 171 patients (92.9%, P<0.001) on the right and 182 patients (98.9%, P= 0.250) on the left did not pass the diaphragm. At the 5th ICS level, 129 patients (70.1%) on the right and 156 patients (84.8%) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Alternatively, at the lower 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4 of the sternum level, 139 (75.5%, P=0.185), 49 (26.6%, P<0.001), and 10 (5.4%, P<0.001), respectively, on the right, and 146 (79.3%, P=0.041), 69 (37.5%, P<0.001), and 16 (8.7%, P<0.001) on the left were located in the safety zone and did not pass the diaphragm. Compared to the conventional 5th ICS method, the sternum 1/2 method had a safety zone prediction sensitivity of 90.0% to 90.7%, and 97.3% to 100% sensitivity for not passing the diaphragm.
Conclusions
Using the sternum length as a tube thoracostomy indicator might be feasible.
Summary
Complications of a Tube Thoracostomy Performed by Emergency Medicine Residents
Dai Yun Cho, Dong Suep Sohn, Young Jin Cheon, Kihun Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):37-43.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A tube thoracostomy is an invasive procedure that places patients at risk for complications. Tube thoracostomies are frequently performed by emergency medicine residents. Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess both the complication rate for tube thoracostomies performed by emergency medicine residents and the factors associated with these complications.
METHODS
A retrospective chart review of all patients who had undergone a tube thoracostomy performed by emergency medicine residents between January 2008 and February 2009 was conducted at a university hospital. Complications were divided into major and minor complications and into immediate and delayed complications. Complications requiring corrective surgical intervention, requiring the administration of blood products, or involving situations requiring intravenous antibiotics were defined as major. Complications that were detected within 2 hours were defined as immediate.
RESULTS
Tube thoracostomies were performed in 189 patients, and 70 patients(37%) experienced some complications. Most complications were immediate and minor. In multiple logistic regressions, BMI, hypotension and resident seniority were significantly associated with complications.
CONCLUSION
The prevalence of complications was similar to these in previous reports on the complications of a tube thoracostomy. Most complications from tube thoracostomies performed by emergency medicine residents were immediate and minor complications. Thus, emergency medicine residents should be allowed to perform closed tube thoracostomies instead of thoracic surgeons.
Summary
Needle Decompression for Trauma Patients: Chest Wall Thickness and Size of the Needle
Jeewan Kim, Jinwoo Jeong, Suck Ju Cho, Seokran Yeom, Sang Kyoon Han, Sungwook Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2010;23(2):63-67.
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  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A tension pneumothorax is a fatal condition that requires immediate intervention. Although a definitive treatment for a tension pneumothorax is a tube thoracostomy, needle decompression can provide temporary relief, that is lifesaving. The traditional procedure for needle decompression involves inserting a needle or catheter at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line. Recent evidence suggests that the commonly used catheters do not have sufficiently penetrate the chest wall. There are also claims that a lateral approach to needle decompression is easier and safer than the traditional anterior approach. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the optimal approach for needle decompression for the Korean population by measuring chest wall thicknesses at the points used for both the anterior and the lateral approaches.
METHODS
The chest wall thickness (CWT) of trauma victims who visited the Emergency Center of Pusan National University Hospital was measured by computed tomography (CT) images. The CWT was measured at the points used for the anterior and the lateral methods and was compared with the length of commonly used catheters, which is 45 mm.
RESULTS
The mean CWT at the second intercostal space, the midclavicular line, was shorter than the CWT at the 5th intercostal space, the anterior axillary line. However, the percentage of patients whose CWT was greater than 45 mm was larger when measured anteriorly (8.2%) that when measure laterally (5.7%). Female patients and those older than 60 were more likely to have an anterior CWT greater than 45 mm (28.2% for females and 15.5% for those older than 60).
CONCLUSION
The percentage of trauma victims in Korea whose CWT is greater than 45 mm is lower than the values previously reported by other countries. However, females and older patients tend to have thicker chest walls, so the lateral approach would be suggested when performing needle decompression for such patients with suspected tension pneumothoraces.
Summary
Study of the Length of Needle Thoracostomy Catheter Needed for Patients with Chest Trauma
Sung Won Kang, Hyun Wook Ryoo, Jung Bae Park, Kang Suk Seo, Jae Myung Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2009;22(1):1-4.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to evaluate the length of the catheter used in a needle thoracostomy for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax by measuring the chest wall thickness (CWT) in patients with chest trauma METHODS: A retrospective review of 201 patients with chest trauma who had been transported the emergency department in a tertiary university hospital in a metropolitan area between 1 January and 31 February 2007 was performed. The average CWT at the second intercostal space (ICS) in the midclavicular line (MCL) was measured by using a chest computed tomography scan.
RESULTS
As the left and the right mean CWTs were 3.4+/-1.0 cm and 3.4+/-1.0 cm, respectively, there was no significant statistical difference between them. The mean CWT of female patients was significantly higher than that of male patients (p=0.001). The mean CWT of patients under the age of 65 years was significantly thicker than that of the patients over the age of 65 years (p<0.001). Of the studied patients, 12 (6.0%) a CWT > 5 cm.
CONCLUSION
A 5 cm-length catheter in a needle thoracostomy may be insufficient for emergency decompression of a tension pneumothorax, so a catheter longer than 5 cm in length is needed.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury