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J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury

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Volume 25(2); June 2012
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Original Articles
Complications of a Tube Thoracostomy Performed by Emergency Medicine Residents
Dai Yun Cho, Dong Suep Sohn, Young Jin Cheon, Kihun Hong
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):37-43.
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  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A tube thoracostomy is an invasive procedure that places patients at risk for complications. Tube thoracostomies are frequently performed by emergency medicine residents. Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess both the complication rate for tube thoracostomies performed by emergency medicine residents and the factors associated with these complications.
METHODS
A retrospective chart review of all patients who had undergone a tube thoracostomy performed by emergency medicine residents between January 2008 and February 2009 was conducted at a university hospital. Complications were divided into major and minor complications and into immediate and delayed complications. Complications requiring corrective surgical intervention, requiring the administration of blood products, or involving situations requiring intravenous antibiotics were defined as major. Complications that were detected within 2 hours were defined as immediate.
RESULTS
Tube thoracostomies were performed in 189 patients, and 70 patients(37%) experienced some complications. Most complications were immediate and minor. In multiple logistic regressions, BMI, hypotension and resident seniority were significantly associated with complications.
CONCLUSION
The prevalence of complications was similar to these in previous reports on the complications of a tube thoracostomy. Most complications from tube thoracostomies performed by emergency medicine residents were immediate and minor complications. Thus, emergency medicine residents should be allowed to perform closed tube thoracostomies instead of thoracic surgeons.
Summary
Clinical Outcomes of Splenic Injury
Seung Hyun Baek, Sung Jin Park, Jae Hoon Kim, Hyun Seong Kim, Dae Hwan Kim, Hong Jae Jo, Hyung Il Seo
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):44-48.
  • 1,100 View
  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
The management of splenic injuries has shifted from a splenectomy to splenic preservation owing to immunity. The purpose of this study was to assess the kinds of management and outcomes through a review of our experience with splenic injuries.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients with traumatic splenic injuries using by electronic medical records from Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2011. Splenic injuries were classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading system.
RESULTS
There were 11 falls, 11 traffic accidents, 10 motorcylcle accidents, 10 pedestrian accidents and 5 abdominal blunt traumas. Low-grade injured patients (< or =Grade III) were 29 of 43(61.7%), and High-grade injured patients (> or =Grade IV) were 18 of 43(38.3%). In 34 patients, non-surgical treatment was performed, and 14 patients underwent a splenectomy. There were relatively more high-grade in older patients, and the highgrade-injury group showed need for a transfusion (p=0.002), more need for a splenectomy (p<0.001), a longer mean hospital stay (p=0.036), a longer ICU stay (p=0.045) and more combined organ injury (p=0.036).
CONCLUSION
Conservative treatment should be considered in low-grade-injury patients (< or =Grade III). A Splenectomy was performed on 56% of the patients with Grade IV injuries, so a splenectomy should be considered carefully in such patients. In patients with a grade V injury, we think surgical treatment may be needed.
Summary
Multivariate Analysis of Predictive Factors for the Severity in Stable Patients with Severe Injury Mechanism
Jae Young Lee, Chang Jae Lee, Hyoung Ju Lee, Tae Nyoung Chung, Eui Chung Kim, Sung Wook Choi, Ok Jun Kim, Yun Kyung Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):49-56.
  • 1,049 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
For determining the prognosis of critically injured patients, transporting patients to medical facilities capable of providing proper assessment and management, running rapid assessment and making rapid decisions, and providing aggressive resuscitation is vital. Considering the high mortality and morbidity rates in critically injured patients, various studies have been conducted in efforts to reduce those rates. However, studies related to diagnostic factors for predicting severity in critically injured patients are still lacking. Furthermore, patients showing stable vital signs and alert mental status, who are injured via a severe trauma mechanism, may be at a risk of not receiving rapid assessment and management. Thus, this study investigates diagnostic factors, including physical examination and laboratory results, that may help predict severity in trauma patients injured via a severe trauma mechanism, but showing stable vital signs.
METHODS
From March 2010 to December 2011, all trauma patients who fit into a diagnostic category that activated a major trauma team in CHA Bundang Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. The retrospective analysis was based on prospective medical records completed at the time of arrival in the emergency department and on sequential laboratory test results. PASW statistics 18(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for the statistical analysis. Patients with relatively stable vital signs and alert mental status were selected based on a revised trauma score of more than 7 points. The final diagnosis of major trauma was made based on an injury severity score of greater than 16 points. Diagnostic variables include systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate, glasgow coma scale, initial result from focused abdominal sonography for trauma, and laboratory results from blood tests and urine analyses. To confirm the true significance of the measured values, we applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one sample test and the Shapiro-Wilk test. When significance was confirmed, the Student's t-test was used for comparison; when significance was not confirmed, the Mann-Whitney u-test was used. The results of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) and factors of urine analysis were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Variables with statistical significance were selected as prognostics factors, and they were analyzed using a multivariate logistics regression model.
RESULTS
A total of 269 patients activated the major trauma team. Excluding 91 patients who scored a revised trauma score of less than 7 points, 178 patients were subdivided by injury severity score to determine the final major trauma patients. Twenty-one(21) patients from 106 major trauma patients and 9 patients from 72 minor trauma patients were also excluded due to missing medical records or untested blood and urine analysis. The investigated variables with p-values less than 0.05 include the glasgow coma scale, respiratory rate, white blood cell count (WBC), serum AST and ALT, serum creatinine, blood in spot urine, and protein in spot urine. These variables could, thus, be prognostic factors in major trauma patients. A multivariate logistics regression analysis on those 8 variables showed the respiratory rate (p=0.034), WBC (p=0.005) and blood in spot urine (p=0.041) to be independent prognostic factors for predicting the clinical course of major trauma patients.
CONCLUSION
In trauma patients injured via a severe trauma mechanism, but showing stable vital signs and alert mental status, the respiratory rate, WBC count and blood in the urine can be used as predictable factors for severity. Using those laboratory results, rapid assessment of major trauma patients may shorten the time to diagnosis and the time for management.
Summary
Case Reports
A Gunshot Wounds to the Cervical Spine and the Cervical Spinal Cord: A Case Report
Sung Hwa Paeng
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):57-62.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Gunshot wounds are rare in Korea, but they have tended to increase recently. We experienced an interesting case of penetrating gunshot injuries to the cervical spine with migration the fragments of the bullet within the dural sac of the cervical spine,so discuss the pathomechanics, treatment and complications of gunshot wounds to the spine and present a review of the literature. A 38-year-old man who had tried to commit suicide with a gun was admitted to our hospital with a penetrating injury to the anterior neck. the patient had quadriplegia. A Computed tomography (CT) scan and 3-dimensional CT of the spine showed destruction of the left lateral mass and lamina of the 5th cervical vertebra; the bullet and fragments were found at the level of the 5th cervical vertebra. The posterior approach was done. A total laminectomy and removal of the lateral mass of the 5th cervical vertebrae were performed, and bone fragments and pellets were removed from the spinal canal, but an intradurally retained pellets were not totally removed. A dural laceration was noted intraoperatively, and CSF leakage was observed, so dura repair was done watertightly with prolene 6-0. The dura repair site was covered with fibrin glue and Tachocomb(R) Immediately, a lumbar drain was done. Radiographs included a postoperative CT scan and X-rays. The postoperative neurological status of the patient was improved compared with the preoperative neurological status. however, the patients developed symptoms of menigitis. He received lumbar drainage(200~250 cc/day) and ventilator care. After two weeks, panperitonitis due to duodenal ulcer perforation was identified. Finally, the patient died because of sepsis.
Summary
A Case of Traumatic Ventral Hernia Repair with a Porcine Dermal Collagen Graft (Permacol)
Byung Chul Yu, Min Chung
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2012;25(2):63-66.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Resection of the bowel is necessary for the repair of a ventral hernia after recovery from trauma in some cases. In such instances, polyester or polypropylene meshcannot be used due to the possibility of infection; we had to use biological mesh instead. We report a case in which a traumatic hernia was repaired with Permacol (Covidien, Norwalk, CT, USA). A 42-year-old male patient had been injured by a factory machine seven months prior to admission. At that time, he had abdominal wall injury and small bowel perforation. His abdominal wall had been a defect after operation. A CT scan of the abdomen showed that the left abdominal wall, which is lateral to left rectus abdominis muscle had only one muscle layer, an external oblique muscle, and that a previous abdominal incision had a defect along the entire incision. During the exploration, 10 cm of small bowel was removed due to firm adhesion to the previous surgical scar. Permacol mesh was applied and fixed with transfascial fixations and tacks by using the intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique. There were no complications after the surgery and the patient was discharged without any problems.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury