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Volume 36(4); December 2023
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Review Article
Delayed union of a pediatric lunate fracture in the United Kingdom: a case report and a review of current concepts of non-scaphoid pediatric carpal fractures
Timothy P. Davis, Elizabeth Headon, Rebecca Morgan, Ashley I. Simpson
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):315-321.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0038
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pediatric carpal fractures are rare and often difficult to detect. This paper reviews the current literature on pediatric non-scaphoid carpal fractures, with a case report of a lunate fracture associated with a distal radius and ulnar styloid fracture, managed nonoperatively in a 12-year-old boy. There is lack of consensus regarding the management of these fractures due to the low number of reported cases. A frequent lack of long-term follow-up limits our understanding of the outcomes, but good outcomes have been reported for both nonoperative and operative management. This case report brings attention to the current time period for the definition of delayed union in pediatric carpal fractures, and emphasizes the need for prolonged follow-up for the detection of delayed complications leading to functional impairment.
Summary
Original Articles
Perceptions regarding the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with severe trauma in Korea: a survey of trauma specialists
Shin Ae Lee, Yeon Jin Joo, Ye Rim Chang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):322-328.   Published online December 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0045
  • 281 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Patients with multiple trauma necessitate assistance from a wide range of departments and professions for their successful reintegration into society. Historically, the primary focus of trauma treatment in Korea has been on reducing mortality rates. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the current state of multidisciplinary treatment for patients with severe trauma in Korea. Based on the insights of trauma specialists (i.e., medical professionals), we aim to suggest potential improvements.
Methods
An online questionnaire was conducted among 871 surgical specialists who were members of the Korean Society of Traumatology. The questionnaire covered participant demographics, current multidisciplinary practices, perceived challenges in collaboration with rehabilitation, psychiatry, and anesthesiology departments, and the perceived necessity for multidisciplinary treatment.
Results
Out of the 41 hospitals with which participants were affiliated, only nine conducted multidisciplinary meetings or rounds with nonsurgical departments. The process of transferring patients to rehabilitation facilities was not widespread, and delays in these transfers were frequently observed. Financial constraints were identified by the respondents as a significant barrier to multidisciplinary collaboration. Despite these hurdles, the majority of respondents acknowledged the importance of multidisciplinary treatment, especially in relation to rehabilitation, psychiatry, and anesthesiology involvement.
Conclusions
This survey showed that medical staff specializing in trauma care perceive several issues stemming from the absence of a multidisciplinary system for patient-centered care in Korea. There is a need to develop an effective multidisciplinary treatment system to facilitate the recovery of trauma patients.
Summary
Clinical characteristics and mortality risk factors among trauma patients by age groups at a single center in Korea over 7 years: a retrospective study
Jonghee Han, Su Young Yoon, Junepill Seok, Jin Young Lee, Jin Suk Lee, Jin Bong Ye, Younghoon Sul, Seheon Kim, Hong Rye Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):329-336.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0035
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
In this study, we aimed to compare the characteristics of patients with trauma by age group in a single center in Korea to identify the clinical characteristics and analyze the risk factors affecting mortality.
Methods
Patients aged ≥18 years who visited the Chungbuk National University Hospital Regional Trauma Center between January 2016 and December 2022 were included. The accident mechanism, severity of the injury, and outcomes were compared by classifying the patients into group A (18–64 years), group B (65–79 years), and group C (≥80 years). In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors affecting death.
Results
The most common injury mechanism was traffic accidents in group A (40.9%) and slipping in group B (37.0%) and group C (56.2%). Although group A had the highest intensive care unit admission rate (38.0%), group C had the highest mortality rate (9.5%). In the regression analysis, 3 to 8 points on the Glasgow Coma Scale had the highest odds ratio for mortality, and red blood cell transfusion within 24 hours, intensive care unit admission, age, and Injury Severity Score were the predictors of death.
Conclusions
For patients with trauma, the mechanism, injured body region, and severity of injury differed among the age groups. The high mortality rate of elderly patients suggests the need for different treatment approaches for trauma patients according to age. Identifying factors affecting clinical patterns and mortality according to age groups can help improve the prognosis of trauma patients in the future.
Summary
Determining the appropriate resting energy expenditure requirement for severe trauma patients using indirect calorimetry in Korea: a retrospective observational study
Hak-Jae Lee, Sung-Bak Ahn, Jung Hyun Lee, Ji-Yeon Kim, Sungyeon Yoo, Suk-Kyung Hong
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):337-342.   Published online November 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0051
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to compare the resting energy expenditure (REE) measured using indirect calorimetry with that estimated using predictive equations in severe trauma patients to determine the appropriate caloric requirements.
Methods
Patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between January 2020 and March 2023 were included in this study. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure the patients’ REE values. These values were subsequently compared with those estimated using predictive equations: the weight-based equation (rule of thumb, 25 kcal/kg/day), Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, and the 2003 Penn State equations.
Results
A total of 27 severe trauma patients were included in this study, and 47 indirect calorimetric measurements were conducted. The weight-based equation (mean difference [MD], –28.96±303.58 kcal) and the 2003 Penn State equation (MD, –3.56±270.39 kcal) showed the closest results to REE measured by indirect calorimetry. However, the REE values estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation (MD, 156.64±276.54 kcal) and Ireton-Jones equation (MD, 250.87±332.54 kcal) displayed significant differences from those measured using indirect calorimetry. The concordance rate, which the predictive REE differs from the measured REE value within 10%, was up to 36.2%.
Conclusions
The REE values estimated using predictive equations exhibited substantial differences from those measured via indirect calorimetry. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the REE value through indirect calorimetry in severe trauma patients.
Summary
Comparison of pediatric injury patterns before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea: a retrospective study
Geom Pil Nam, Woo Sung Choi, Jin-Seong Cho, Yong Su Lim, Jae-Hyug Woo, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):343-353.   Published online December 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0053
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant changes in the lifestyle patterns of children and affected the patterns of pediatric injuries. This study analyzed the changing patterns of pediatric injury overall and by age groups, based on the datasets before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods
This study is based on the data of patients who presented with injuries at 24 hospital emergency departments participating in the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The surveillance data was categorized by injury mechanism, location, activity, and severity. We analyzed the injury patterns of pediatric patients aged 0 to 15 years. Subgroup analysis was conducted by age group in children aged 7 to 15 years, 1 to 6 years, and <1 year.
Results
The study periods were March 12, 2018, to December 31, 2019 (pre–COVID-19 period) and March 12, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (COVID-19 pandemic period). A total of 222,304 patients aged ≤15 years were included in the study. When comparing the COVID-19 pandemic period to the pre–COVID-19 period, the total number of pediatric patients with injuries decreased by 38.7%, while the proportions of in-home injuries (57.9% vs. 67.9%), and minor injuries (39.3% vs. 49.2%) increased. In the 7 to 15 years group, bicycle riding injuries (50.9% vs. 65.6%) and personal mobility device injuries (2.4% vs. 4.6%) increased. The 1 to 6 years group also showed an increase in bicycle accident injuries (15.8% vs. 22.4%). In the <1 year group, injuries from falls increased (44.5% vs. 49.9%). Self-harm injuries in the 7 to 15 years group also increased (1.6% vs. 2.8%).
Conclusions
During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the overall number of pediatric injuries decreased, while injuries occurring at home and during indoor activities increased. Traffic accidents involving bicycles and personal mobility devices and self-harm injuries increased in the 7 to 15 years group. In the <1 year group, the incidence of falls increased. Medical and societal preparedness is needed so that we might anticipate these changes in the patterns of pediatric injuries during future infectious disease pandemics.
Summary
Outcomes and physiologic responses associated with ketamine administration after traumatic brain injury in the United States and Canada: a retrospective analysis
Austin J. Peters, Saad A. Khan, Seiji Koike, Susan Rowell, Martin Schreiber
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):354-361.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0034
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Ketamine has historically been contraindicated in traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to concern for raising intracranial pressure. However, it is increasingly being used in TBI due to the favorable respiratory and hemodynamic properties. To date, no studies have evaluated whether ketamine administered in subjects with TBI is associated with patient survival or disability.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the multicenter Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Use for Traumatic Brain Injury trial, comparing ketamine-exposed and ketamine-unexposed TBI subjects to determine whether an association exists between ketamine administration and mortality, as well as secondary outcome measures.
Results
We analyzed 841 eligible subjects from the original study, of which 131 (15.5%) received ketamine. Ketamine-exposed subjects were younger (37.3±16.9 years vs. 42.0±18.6 years, P=0.037), had a worse initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (7±3 vs. 8±4, P=0.003), and were more likely to be intubated than ketamine-unexposed subjects (88.5% vs. 44.2%, P<0.001). Overall, there was no difference in mortality (12.2% vs. 15.5%, P=0.391) or disability measures between groups. Ketamine-exposed subjects had significantly fewer instances of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) compared to ketamine-unexposed subjects (56.3% vs. 82.3%, P=0.048). In the very rare outcomes of cardiac events and seizure activity, seizure activity was statistically more likely in ketamine-exposed subjects (3.1% vs. 1.0%, P=0.010). In the intracranial hemorrhage subgroup, cardiac events were more likely in ketamine-exposed subjects (2.3% vs. 0.2%, P=0.025). Ketamine exposure was associated with a smaller increase in TBI protein biomarker concentrations.
Conclusions
Ketamine administration was not associated with worse survival or disability despite being administered to more severely injured subjects. Ketamine exposure was associated with reduced elevations of ICP, more instances of seizure activity, and lower concentrations of TBI protein biomarkers.
Summary
A decade of treating traumatic sternal fractures in a single-center experience in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Na Hyeon Lee, Seon Hee Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Ho Hyun Kim, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Gil Hwan Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sun Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):362-368.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0027
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Clinical reports on treatment outcomes of sternal fractures are lacking. This study details the clinical features, treatment approaches, and outcomes related to traumatic sternal fractures over a 10-year period at a single institution.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to a regional trauma center between January 2012 and December 2021. Among 7,918 patients with chest injuries, 266 were diagnosed with traumatic sternal fractures. Patient data were collected, including demographics, injury mechanisms, severity, associated injuries, sternal fracture characteristics, hospital stay duration, mortality, respiratory complications, and surgical details. Surgical indications encompassed emergency cases involving intrathoracic injuries, unstable fractures, severe dislocations, flail chest, malunion, and persistent high-grade pain.
Results
Of 266 patients with traumatic sternal fractures, 260 were included; 98 underwent surgical treatment for sternal fractures, while 162 were managed conservatively. Surgical indications ranged from intrathoracic organ or blood vessel injuries necessitating thoracotomy to unstable fractures with severe dislocations. Factors influencing surgical treatment included flail motion and rib fracture. The median length of intensive care unit stay was 5.4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1.5–18.0 days) for the nonsurgery group and 8.6 days (IQR, 3.3–23.6 days) for the surgery group. The median length of hospital stay was 20.9 days (IQR, 9.3–48.3 days) for the nonsurgery group and 27.5 days (IQR, 17.0 to 58.0 days) for the surgery group. The between-group differences were not statistically significant. Surgical interventions were successful, with stable bone union and minimal complications. Flail motion in the presence of rib fracture was a crucial consideration for surgical intervention.
Conclusions
Surgical treatment recommendations for sternal fractures vary based on flail chest presence, displacement degree, and rib fracture. Surgery is recommended for patients with offset-type sternal fractures with rib and segmental sternal fractures. Surgical intervention led to stable bone union and minimal complications.
Summary
Proximally based sural artery flap for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects around the knee and proximal third of the leg in India: a clinical study
Palukuri Lakshmi, Sreedharala Srinivas, Dharmapuri Madhulika, Sanujit Pawde, Ajo Sebastian, Swathi Sankar, Sandeep Reddy Chintha
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):369-375.   Published online November 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0042
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The reconstruction of defects around the knee and the proximal third of the leg necessitates thin, pliable skin with a stable and sensate soft tissue cover. This study analyzed the use of a proximally based sural artery flap for the coverage of such defects.
Methods
This prospective clinical interventional study involved 10 patients who had soft tissue defects over the knee and the proximal third of the leg. These patients underwent reconstruction with a proximally based sural artery flap. The study analyzed various factors including age, sex, etiology, location and presentation of the defect, defect dimensions, flap particulars, postoperative complications, and follow-up.
Results
There were 10 cases, all of which involved men aged 20 to 65 years. The most common cause of injury was trauma resulting from road traffic accidents. The majority of defects were found in the proximal third of the leg, particularly on the anterolateral aspect. Defect dimensions varied from 6×3 to 15×13 cm2, and extensive defects as large as 16×14 cm could be covered using this flap. The size of the flaps ranged from 7×4 to 16×14 cm2, and the pedicle length was 10 to 15 cm. In all cases, donor site closure was achieved with split skin grafting. This flap consistently provided a thin, pliable, stable, and durable soft tissue cover over the defect with no functional deficit and minimal donor site morbidity. Complications, including distal flap necrosis and donor site graft loss, were observed in two cases.
Conclusions
The proximally based sural fasciocutaneous flap serves as the primary method for reconstructing medium to large soft tissue defects around the knee and the proximal third of the leg. This technique offers thin, reliable, sensate, and stable soft tissue coverage, and can cover larger defects with minimal complications.
Summary
One year of treating patients with open fractures of the lower extremity in a new military trauma center in Korea: a case series
Ji Wool Ko, Giho Moon, Jin Geun Kwon, Kyoung Eun Kim, Hankaram Jeon, Kyungwon Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):376-384.   Published online December 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0041
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The Armed Forces Trauma Center of Korea was established in April 2022. This study was conducted to report our 1-year experience of treating soldiers with open fractures of the lower extremity.
Methods
In this case series, we reviewed the medical records of 51 Korean soldiers with open fractures of the lower extremity between April 2022 and March 2023 at a trauma center. We analyzed patients with Gustilo-Anderson type II and III fractures and reported the duration of transportation, injury mechanisms, injured sites, and associated injuries. We also presented laboratory findings, surgery types, intensive care unit stays, hospital stays, rehabilitation results, and reasons for psychiatric consultation. Additionally, we described patients’ mode of transport.
Results
This study enrolled nine male patients who were between 21 and 26 years old. Six patients had type II and three had type III fractures. Transport from the accident scene to the emergency room ranged from 75 to 455 minutes, and from the emergency room to the operating room ranged from 35 to 200 minutes. Injury mechanisms included gunshot wounds, landmine explosions, grenade explosions, and entrapment by ship mooring ropes. One case had serious associated injuries (inhalation burn, open facial bone fractures, and hemopneumothorax). No cases with serious blood loss or coagulopathies were found, but most cases had a significant elevation of creatinine kinase. Two patients underwent vascular reconstruction, whereas four patients received flap surgery. After rehabilitation, six patients could walk, one patient could move their joints actively, and two patients performed active assistive movement. Eight patients were referred to the psychiatry department due to suicidal attempts and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Conclusions
This study provides insights into how to improve treatment for patients with military trauma, as well as medical services such as the transport system, by revising treatment protocols and systematizing treatment.
Summary
Traumatic degloving injuries: a prospective study to assess injury patterns, management, and outcomes at a single center in northern India
Divij Jayant, Atul Parashar, Ramesh Sharma
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):385-392.   Published online November 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0032
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study investigated the epidemiology, management, outcomes, and postoperative disabilities of degloving soft tissue injuries (DSTIs) treated at a tertiary care center in northern India.
Methods
A prospective study of patients with DSTIs was conducted over 15 months. The type of degloving injury, the mechanism of injury, and any associated injuries were analyzed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 along with the management, outcomes, and disabilities at a 3-month follow-up.
Results
Among 75 patients with DSTIs, the average age was 27.5 years, 80.0% were male, and 76.0% had been injured in traffic accidents. The majority (93.3%) were open degloving injuries. Lower limbs were affected most often (62.7%), followed by upper limbs (32.0%). Fractures were the most commonly associated injuries (72.0%). Most patients required multiple procedures, including secondary debridement (41.3%), split skin grafting (80.0%), flap coverage (12.0%), or vacuum-assisted closure (24.0%), while five patients underwent conservative management for closed degloving injuries. Postoperative complications included surgical site infections (14.7%) and skin necrosis (10.7%). Two patients died due to septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The mean length of hospital stay was 11.5±8.1 days, with injuries affecting the lower limbs and perineum requiring longer hospital stays. The mean WHODAS 2.0 disability score at 3 months was 19. Most patients had mild disabilities. Time away from work depended largely upon the site and severity of the injury. Approximately 75% of patients resumed their previous job or study, 14% changed their job, and 8% stopped working completely due to residual disability.
Conclusions
Closed degloving injuries may be missed in the primary survey, necessitating a high index of suspicion, thorough clinical examination, and protocol-based management. Primary preventive strategies (e.g., road safety protocols, preplacement training, and proper protective equipment in industries) are also needed to reduce the incidence of these injuries.
Summary
Case Reports
Various injury patterns due to combustion (typical but unfamiliar to physicians and easy to miss) in Korea: a case report
Hyung Il Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):393-398.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0060
  • 235 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Patients transported from fire sites may exhibit various injury patterns. Major trauma, skin burn, inhalation burn, and carbon monoxide poisoning are typical injuries. However, most physicians may be unfamiliar that cyanide poisoning can frequently occur due to combustion. Cyanide poisoning is highly significant owing to high mortality and the existence of antidotes. I present a 35-year-old man who was transported from a burning building and suffered severe metabolic acidosis despite no major bleeding as well as mild carbon monoxide poisoning. I suspected cyanide poisoning and administered the antidote; subsequently, the patient showed improvement. The next day, sudden airway obstruction developed, and emergency endotracheal intubation was performed. The inhalation damage was detected only in the lower airway tract and not in the upper airway. Physicians should be aware of cyanide poisoning and inhalation burn to avoid missing treatment opportunities.
Summary
Surgical management of supratentorial and infratentorial epidural hematoma in Korea: three case reports
Su Young Yoon, Junepill Seok, Yook Kim, Jin Suk Lee, Jin Young Lee, Mou Seop Lee, Hong Rye Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):399-403.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0073
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Supratentorial and infratentorial epidural hematoma (SIEDH) is a rare but life-threatening complication following traumatic brain injury. However, the literature on SIEDH is sparse, consisting only of a few small series. Prompt diagnosis and the application of appropriate surgical techniques are crucial for the rapid and safe management of SIEDH. Herein, we present three cases of SIEDH treated at our institution, employing a range of surgical approaches.
Summary
Expediting venous drainage in large anterolateral thigh flaps for scalp electrical burns in India: two case reports on the use of primary vein grafts for second vein anastomosis
Jyotica Jagadish Chawaria, Parvati Ravula, Nazia Tabassum, Srikanth Rangachari
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):404-410.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0054
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  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Large scalp defects resulting from high-voltage electrical burns require free flaps, preferably skin, to permit optimal coverage and enable future or simultaneous cranial vault reconstruction. The anterolateral thigh permits the harvest of a large area of skin supplied by a reliable perforator. The superficial temporal vessels offer the proximate choice of recipient vessels to enable adequate reach and coverage. The lack of a second vein at this site implies the inability to perform a second venous anastomosis; however, this obstacle can be overcome by using an interposition vein graft, to the neck veins primarily. This assures adequate venous drainage and complete flap survival.
Summary
Radiological assessment and follow-up of a nonsurgically treated odontoid process fracture after a motor vehicle accident in Egypt: a case report
Ahmad Mokhtar Abodahab
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):411-415.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0039
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An odontoid process fracture is a serious type of cervical spine injury. This injury is categorized into three types based on the location of the fracture. Severe or even fatal neurological deficits can occur due to associated cord injury, which can result in complete quadriplegia. Computed tomography is the primary diagnostic tool, while magnetic resonance imaging is used to evaluate any associated cord injuries. These injuries can occur either directly from the injury or during transportation to the hospital if mishandled. There are two main treatment approaches: surgical fixation or external nonsurgical fixation, with various types and models of fixation devices available. In this case study, computed tomography follow-up confirmed that external fixation can yield successful results in terms of complete healing, even in cases complicated by other factors that may impede healing, such as pregnancy.
Summary
A rare and unique experience of a blunt intrathoracic traumatic injury of the trachea and its management in South Africa: a case report
Rudo Mutsa Vanessa Pswarayi, Anna Katariina Kerola
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):416-420.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0036
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Blunt intrathoracic tracheal injuries are rare, even among blunt chest trauma patients. An early diagnosis based on a high index of suspicion allows for timely surgical management of potentially fatal airway trauma, thereby improving overall outcomes. Diagnosing these injuries can be difficult due to their nonspecific clinical features and the occasional difficulty in radiologic diagnosis. If a patient exhibits respiratory compromise with difficult ventilation and poor lung expansion, despite the insertion and management of an intercostal drain following high-energy blunt trauma, there should be a heightened suspicion of potential airway trauma. The aim of primary repair is to restore airway integrity and to minimize the loss of pulmonary parenchyma function. This case report discusses the rare clinical presentation of a patient with blunt trauma to the intrathoracic airway, the surgical management thereof, and his overall outcome. Although blunt traumatic injuries of the trachea are extremely rare and often fatal, early surgical intervention can potentially reduce the risk of mortality.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury