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Original Articles
Outcomes and physiologic responses associated with ketamine administration after traumatic brain injury in the United States and Canada: a retrospective analysis
Austin J. Peters, Saad A. Khan, Seiji Koike, Susan Rowell, Martin Schreiber
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):354-361.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0034
Funded: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Defense Medical Research and Development Program
  • 544 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Ketamine has historically been contraindicated in traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to concern for raising intracranial pressure. However, it is increasingly being used in TBI due to the favorable respiratory and hemodynamic properties. To date, no studies have evaluated whether ketamine administered in subjects with TBI is associated with patient survival or disability.
Methods
We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the multicenter Prehospital Tranexamic Acid Use for Traumatic Brain Injury trial, comparing ketamine-exposed and ketamine-unexposed TBI subjects to determine whether an association exists between ketamine administration and mortality, as well as secondary outcome measures.
Results
We analyzed 841 eligible subjects from the original study, of which 131 (15.5%) received ketamine. Ketamine-exposed subjects were younger (37.3±16.9 years vs. 42.0±18.6 years, P=0.037), had a worse initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (7±3 vs. 8±4, P=0.003), and were more likely to be intubated than ketamine-unexposed subjects (88.5% vs. 44.2%, P<0.001). Overall, there was no difference in mortality (12.2% vs. 15.5%, P=0.391) or disability measures between groups. Ketamine-exposed subjects had significantly fewer instances of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) compared to ketamine-unexposed subjects (56.3% vs. 82.3%, P=0.048). In the very rare outcomes of cardiac events and seizure activity, seizure activity was statistically more likely in ketamine-exposed subjects (3.1% vs. 1.0%, P=0.010). In the intracranial hemorrhage subgroup, cardiac events were more likely in ketamine-exposed subjects (2.3% vs. 0.2%, P=0.025). Ketamine exposure was associated with a smaller increase in TBI protein biomarker concentrations.
Conclusions
Ketamine administration was not associated with worse survival or disability despite being administered to more severely injured subjects. Ketamine exposure was associated with reduced elevations of ICP, more instances of seizure activity, and lower concentrations of TBI protein biomarkers.
Summary
A decade of treating traumatic sternal fractures in a single-center experience in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Na Hyeon Lee, Seon Hee Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Ho Hyun Kim, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Gil Hwan Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sun Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):362-368.   Published online November 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0027
Funded: Pusan National University
  • 345 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Clinical reports on treatment outcomes of sternal fractures are lacking. This study details the clinical features, treatment approaches, and outcomes related to traumatic sternal fractures over a 10-year period at a single institution.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients admitted to a regional trauma center between January 2012 and December 2021. Among 7,918 patients with chest injuries, 266 were diagnosed with traumatic sternal fractures. Patient data were collected, including demographics, injury mechanisms, severity, associated injuries, sternal fracture characteristics, hospital stay duration, mortality, respiratory complications, and surgical details. Surgical indications encompassed emergency cases involving intrathoracic injuries, unstable fractures, severe dislocations, flail chest, malunion, and persistent high-grade pain.
Results
Of 266 patients with traumatic sternal fractures, 260 were included; 98 underwent surgical treatment for sternal fractures, while 162 were managed conservatively. Surgical indications ranged from intrathoracic organ or blood vessel injuries necessitating thoracotomy to unstable fractures with severe dislocations. Factors influencing surgical treatment included flail motion and rib fracture. The median length of intensive care unit stay was 5.4 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1.5–18.0 days) for the nonsurgery group and 8.6 days (IQR, 3.3–23.6 days) for the surgery group. The median length of hospital stay was 20.9 days (IQR, 9.3–48.3 days) for the nonsurgery group and 27.5 days (IQR, 17.0 to 58.0 days) for the surgery group. The between-group differences were not statistically significant. Surgical interventions were successful, with stable bone union and minimal complications. Flail motion in the presence of rib fracture was a crucial consideration for surgical intervention.
Conclusions
Surgical treatment recommendations for sternal fractures vary based on flail chest presence, displacement degree, and rib fracture. Surgery is recommended for patients with offset-type sternal fractures with rib and segmental sternal fractures. Surgical intervention led to stable bone union and minimal complications.
Summary
Perceptions regarding the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with severe trauma in Korea: a survey of trauma specialists
Shin Ae Lee, Yeon Jin Joo, Ye Rim Chang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):322-328.   Published online December 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0045
Funded: National Traffic Injury Rehabilitation Research Fund, Korean Association for Research
  • 281 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Patients with multiple trauma necessitate assistance from a wide range of departments and professions for their successful reintegration into society. Historically, the primary focus of trauma treatment in Korea has been on reducing mortality rates. This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the current state of multidisciplinary treatment for patients with severe trauma in Korea. Based on the insights of trauma specialists (i.e., medical professionals), we aim to suggest potential improvements.
Methods
An online questionnaire was conducted among 871 surgical specialists who were members of the Korean Society of Traumatology. The questionnaire covered participant demographics, current multidisciplinary practices, perceived challenges in collaboration with rehabilitation, psychiatry, and anesthesiology departments, and the perceived necessity for multidisciplinary treatment.
Results
Out of the 41 hospitals with which participants were affiliated, only nine conducted multidisciplinary meetings or rounds with nonsurgical departments. The process of transferring patients to rehabilitation facilities was not widespread, and delays in these transfers were frequently observed. Financial constraints were identified by the respondents as a significant barrier to multidisciplinary collaboration. Despite these hurdles, the majority of respondents acknowledged the importance of multidisciplinary treatment, especially in relation to rehabilitation, psychiatry, and anesthesiology involvement.
Conclusions
This survey showed that medical staff specializing in trauma care perceive several issues stemming from the absence of a multidisciplinary system for patient-centered care in Korea. There is a need to develop an effective multidisciplinary treatment system to facilitate the recovery of trauma patients.
Summary
Case Report
A method of bedside urethrography before catheterization in pelvic trauma in Korea: a case report
Hojun Lee, Sung Yub Jeong, Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(4):451-453.   Published online December 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0047
Funded: Korean Ministry of National Defense
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  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We introduce a convenient method of urethrography before catheterization for patients with pelvic trauma that can be used in a resuscitation area. A 10-mL syringe without a needle was used. X-ray contrast medium (Iohexol, 300 mg I/mL) was administered through the urethral orifice using a 10-mL syringe without needle and a simple pelvic anteroposterior film was taken (70 kilovolt [peak], 50 mAs). A 36-year-old soldier with a saddle injury from a gun barrel was taken to a trauma center. He had a pelvic fracture and complained of hematuria. Bedside urethrography above described was performed. The anterior urethra showed nonspecific findings, but dye leaked from the posterior urethra. Bedside Foley catheter insertion was attempted, but the catheter could not be advanced past the membranous urethra. Thereafter, suprapubic catheterization was performed. On the day of the injury, iliac artery embolization was carried out. The dislocated sacroiliac joint was also treated using open reduction and internal fixation. On hospital day 7, guidewire Foley insertion was performed. This bedside urethrography technique is simple and useful for pelvic fractures in which urethral injury is suspected.
Summary
Original Articles
Factors associated with the injury severity of falls from a similar height and features of the injury site in Korea: a retrospective study
Dae Hyun Kim, Jae-Hyug Woo, Yang Bin Jeon, Jin-Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):187-195.   Published online November 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0042
Funded: Research of Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency
  • 1,425 View
  • 54 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the severity of fall-related injuries among patients who suffered a fall from similar heights and analyze differences in injury sites according to intentionality and injury severity.
Methods
The Emergency Department-Based Injury In-depth Surveillance data collected between 2019 and 2020 were used in this retrospective study. Patients with fall-related injuries who fell from a height of ≥6 and <9 m were included. Patients were categorized into the severe and mild/moderate groups according to their excessive mortality ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS) and the intention and non-intention groups. Injury-related and outcome-related factors were compared between the groups.
Results
In total, 33,046 patients sustained fall-related injuries. Among them, 543 were enrolled for analysis. A total of 256 and 287 patients were included in the severe and mild/moderate groups, respectively, and 93 and 450 patients were included in the intention and non-intention groups, respectively. The median age was 50 years (range, 39–60 years) and 45 years (range, 27–56 years) in the severe and mild/moderate groups, respectively (P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, higher height (odds ratio [OR] 1.638; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.279–2.098) and accompanying foot injury (OR, 0.466; 95% CI, 0.263–0.828) were independently associated with injury severity (EMR-ISS ≥25) and intentionality of fall (OR, 0.722; 95% CI, 0.418–1.248) was not associated with injury severity. The incidence of forearm injuries was four (4.3%) and 58 cases (12.9%, P=0.018) and that of foot injuries was 20 (21.5%) and 54 cases (12.0%, P=0.015) in the intention versus non-intention groups, respectively.
Conclusions
Among patients who fell from a similar height, age, and fall height were associated with severe fall-related injuries. Intentionality was not related to injury severity, and patients with foot injury were less likely to experience serious injuries. Injuries in the lower and upper extremities were more common in intentional and unintentional falls, respectively.
Summary
Clinical characteristics of patients with the hardware failure after surgical stabilization of rib fractures in Korea: a case series
Na Hyeon Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hohyun Kim, Gil Hwan Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):196-205.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0026
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea, Pusan National University
  • 857 View
  • 41 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) is widely used in patients with flail chests, and several studies have reported the efficacy of SSRF even in multiple rib fractures. However, few reports have discussed the hardware failure (HF) of implanted plates. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with HF after SSRF and further investigate the related factors.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent SSRF for multiple rib fractures at a level I trauma center in Korea between January 2014 and January 2021. We defined HF as the unintentional loosening of screws, dislocation, or breakage of the implanted plates. The baseline characteristics, surgical outcomes, and types of HF were assessed.
Results
During the study period, 728 patients underwent SSRF, of whom 80 (10.9%) were diagnosed with HF. The mean age of HF patients was 56.5±13.6 years, and 66 (82.5%) were men. There were 59 cases (73.8%) of screw loosening, 21 (26.3%) of plate breakage, 17 (21.3%) of screw migration, and seven (8.8%) of plate dislocation. Nine patients (11.3%) experienced wound infection, and 35 patients (43.8%) experienced chronic pain. A total of 21 patients (26.3%) underwent reoperation for plate removal. The patients in the reoperation group were significantly younger, had fewer fractures and plates, underwent costal fixation, and had a longer follow-up. There were no significant differences in subjective chest symptoms or lung capacity.
Conclusions
HF after SSRF occurred in 10.9% of the cases, and screw loosening was the most common. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk factors for SSRF failure.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Komplikationen nach operativer vs. konservativer Versorgung des schweren Thoraxtraumas
    Lars Becker, Marcel Dudda, Christof Schreyer
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Editorial
Near-death experiences in 19th century Korean tales
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):75-77.   Published online August 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0020
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 2,233 View
  • 58 Download
PDF
Summary
Original Article
Effect of use and type of helmet on occurrence of traumatic brain injuries in motorcycle riders in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Sowon Seo, Seok Ran Yeom, Sung-Wook Park, Il Jae Wang, Suck Ju Cho, Wook Tae Yang, Youngmo Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):87-97.   Published online December 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0029
Funded: Pusan National University Hospital
  • 1,709 View
  • 57 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to investigate (1) the association among helmet wearing, incidence rate of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and in-hospital mortality; TBI was diagnosed when the head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was ≥1, and as severe TBI when head AIS was ≥3; and (2) the association between helmet type and incidence rate of TBI, severe TBI, and in-hospital mortality of motorcycle accidents based on the newly revised Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) data.
Methods
Data collected from EDIIS between January 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 were analyzed. The final study population comprised 1,910 patients, who were divided into two groups: helmet wearing group and unhelmeted group. In addition, the correlation between helmet type and motorcycle accident was determined in 596 patients who knew the exact type of helmet they wore. A total of 710 patients who wore helmet but did not know the type were excluded from this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in both the groups to investigate the factors affecting the primary (occurrence of TBIs) and secondary outcomes (severe TBI and in-hospital mortality).
Results
The prevalence of Injury Severity Scores, TBIs, and severe TBIs as well as in-hospital mortality were the highest in the unhelmeted group. Additionally, the results from the group that wore and knew the type of helmet worn indicated that wearing a full-face helmet decreased the incidence of TBIs in comparison to a half-face helmet.
Conclusions
The wearing of a helmet in motorcycle accidents is very important as it plays a role in reducing the occurrence of TBIs and severe TBIs and in-hospital mortality. The use of a full-face helmet lowered the incidence of TBIs.
Summary
Editorials
Penetrating trauma and “The Wound Man”
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(1):1-2.   Published online November 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0035
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 6,340 View
  • 67 Download
PDF
Summary
New horizons of Flaubert: from a barber-surgeon to a modern trauma surgeon
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(Suppl 1):S1-S2.   Published online May 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0081
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 1,890 View
  • 60 Download
PDF
Summary
Original Article
Plastic surgery in a trauma center: a multidisciplinary approach for polytrauma patients
Kyung-Chul Moon, Yu-Kyeong Yun
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):261-267.   Published online December 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0086
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 2,634 View
  • 73 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
With the increasing number of polytrauma patients treated at high-level trauma centers, plastic surgery has entered the specialty of traumatology. Plastic surgeons specialize in the simultaneous surgical care of patients with facial or hand trauma and soft tissue injuries requiring microsurgery. The purpose of this study was to introduce the role of plastic surgery in a high-level trauma center.
Methods
Between January 2020 and December 2020, 5,712 patients with traumatic injuries were admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital. Of these 5,712 patients, 1,578 patients were hospitalized for surgical treatment and/or critical care. Among the 1,578 hospitalized trauma patients, 551 patients (35%) required at least one plastic surgery procedure. The patient variables included age, sex, etiology, the injured area, and injury characteristics. We also retrospectively investigated surgical data such as the duration of the operation, hospital stay, length of time from injury to surgery, and collaboration with other departments.
Results
The most common injury referred to plastic surgery was facial trauma (41%), followed by hand trauma (36%), and soft tissue injuries requiring microsurgery in various parts of the body other than the hand (7%). The majority of facial and hand traumas were concomitant injuries. Sixteen percent of patients underwent collaborative surgical management for polytrauma involving both plastic surgery and another department.
Conclusions
The role of plastic surgery in multidisciplinary teams at high-level trauma centers has become increasingly important. The results of this study may help in the development of multidisciplinary trauma team strategies and future workforce planning.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Interdisziplinäres Extremitäten-Board in der Behandlung von Komplexverletzungen
    T. Omar Pacha, P. Mommsen, V. Brauckmann, G. Aktas, M. Krempec, B. Wilhelmi, J.-D. Clausen, V. März, N. Krezdorn, P. M. Vogt, S. Sehmisch, J. B. Hinrichs, J. Ernst
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2023; 126(3): 175.     CrossRef
Editorial
Tactical field management of penetrating arrow injuries in ancient Asia
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):229-231.   Published online June 23, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0018
Funded: National Research Foundation of Korea
  • 1,861 View
  • 41 Download
  • 1 Citations
PDF
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Medieval (arrow) weapon injuries in contemporary surgical practice: Impaled posterior thoracic wall arrowhead leading to haemo-thorax: Management protocols. Case report
    Ahmed Shabhay, Zarina Shabhay, Fabian Anaclet Massaga, Amri Salim Mwami, Samwel Chugulu
    International Journal of Surgery Case Reports.2023; 111: 108866.     CrossRef
Original Article
Postoperative infection after cranioplasty in traumatic brain injury: a single center experience
Mahnjeong Ha, Jung Hwan Lee, Hyuk Jin Choi, Byung Chul Kim, Seunghan Yu
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):255-260.   Published online November 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0043
Funded: Pusan National University Hospital
  • 1,207 View
  • 48 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative infection after cranioplasty in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Methods
Data of 289 adult patients who underwent cranioplasty after TBI at a single regional trauma center between year 2018 and 2021 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient characteristics and various procedural variables, such as interval between craniectomy and cranioplasty, estimated blood loss, laterality and materials of the bone flap, and duration and classification of perioperative antibiotics usage were analyzed.
Results
Postoperative infection occurred in 17 patients (5.9%). Onset time of infectious symptom ranged from 9 days to 174 days (median, 24 days) after cranioplasty. The most common cultured organism was Staphylococcus aureus (47.1%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (17.6%). Patients with postoperative infection were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 6.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.92–25.21; P=0.003), lower body mass index (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66–0.98; P=0.029), and shorter duration of perioperative antibiotics (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71–0.98; P=0.026).
Conclusions
For TBI patients with diabetes, poor nutritional status should be managed cautiously for increased risk of infection after cranioplasty. Further studies and discussions are needed to determine an appropriate antibiotics protocol in cranioplasty.
Summary
Case Report
Gastric necrosis after gastric artery embolization in a patient with blunt abdominal trauma: a case report
Gil Hwan Kim, Sung Jin Park, Chan Ik Park
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):287-290.   Published online December 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0054
Funded: Pusan National University Hospital
  • 1,135 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gastric artery bleeding after blunt trauma is rare. In such cases, if vital signs are stable, angiographic embolization may be performed. Although gastric artery embolization is known to be safe due to its anatomical properties, complications may occur. We report a case of gastric necrosis after gastric artery embolization in a patient with blunt abdominal trauma. The 55-year-old male patient was found with gastric arterial bleeding after a traffic accident. His vital signs were stable, and gastric artery embolization was performed. Gastric necrosis was subsequently found, which was treated surgically.
Summary
Original Article
Outcomes of open neck injuries
Dongsub Noh, Jin Ho Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):168-172.   Published online June 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0056
Funded: Dankook University
  • 1,858 View
  • 69 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The neck is a particularly critical region for penetrating injuries due to the close proximity of the trachea, esophagus, blood vessels, and the spinal cord. An open neck injury has the potential for serious morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the assessment and management of open neck injuries.
Methods
In this retrospective study, open neck injury patients who were admitted to NAME University Hospital Trauma Center between December 2015 and December 2017 were analyzed for epidemiology, the mechanism of trauma, the injured organ, complications, and mortality.
Results
Thirty-two patients presented with open neck injuries. All patients underwent computed tomographic angiography to evaluate their injuries once their vital signs stabilized. Among these patients, 27 required surgical treatment. The most commonly injured organ was the airway. There were five deaths, and the main cause of death was bleeding. Mortality was associated with the initial systolic blood pressure at the hospital and Glasgow Coma Scale.
Conclusions
Mortality from open neck injuries was associated with initial systolic blood pressure at the hospital and Glasgow Coma Scale.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury