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Volume 24(1); June 2011
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Original Articles
Clinical Outcomes and Risk Factors of Traumatic Pancreatic Injuries
Hong Tae Lee, Jae Il Kim, Pyong Wha Choi, Je Hoon Park, Tae Gil Heo, Myung Soo Lee, Chul Nam Kim, Surk Hyo Chang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):1-6.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Even though traumatic pancreatic injuries occur in only 0.2% to 4% of all abdominal injuries, the morbidity and the mortality rates associated with pancreatic injuries remain high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of traumatic pancreatic injuries and to identify predictors of mortality and morbidity.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 26 consecutive patients with a pancreatic injury who underwent a laparotomy from January 2000 to December 2010. The data collected included demographic data, the mechanism of injury, the initial vital signs, the grade of pancreatic injury, the injury severity score (ISS), the revised trauma score (RTS), the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the number of abbreviated injury scales (AIS), the number of associated injuries, the initial laboratory findings, the amount of blood transfusion, the type of operation, the mortality, the morbidity, and others.
RESULTS
The overall mortality rate in our series was 23.0%, and the morbidity rate was 76.9%. Twenty patients (76.9%) had associated injuries to either intra-abdominal organs or extra-abdominal organs. Two patients (7.7%) underwent external drainage, and 18 patients (69.3%) underwent a distal pancreatectomy. Pancreaticoduodenectomies were performed in 6 patients (23.0%). Three patients underwent a re-laparotomy due to anastomosis leakage or postoperative bleeding, and all patients died. The univariate analysis revealed 11 factors (amount of transfusion, AAST grade, re-laparotomy, associated duodenal injury, base excess, APACHE II score, type of operation, operation time, RTS, associated colon injury, GCS) to be significantly associated with mortality (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION
Whenever a surgeon manages a patient with traumatic pancreatic injury, the surgeon needs to consider the predictive risk factors. And, if possible, the patient should undergo a proper and meticulous, less invasive surgical procedure.
Summary
Clinical Aanalysis of Airway Trauma
Hyun Min Cho, Young Jin Kim, Han Young Ryu, Jung Joo Hwang
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):7-11.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Traumatic airway injuries have high rates of mortality and morbidity. Thus, we evaluated the clinical results of trauma-related airway-injury patients.
METHODS
A clinical analysis was performed for patients with airway trauma who were admitted and treated at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Konyang University Hospital from Dec. 2002 to Dec. 2009.
RESULTS
Sixteen patients were admitted and treated. Fourteen patients were male, and the ages of the patients ranged from 16 to 75 years. Six cases were penetrating injuries, 4 were traffic-accident injuries. 3 were fall injuries, and. 3 were other blunt trauma injuries. Anato- mic injuries included 14 trachea cases (87.5%), 1 Rt. main bronchus (6.25%), and 1 Lt. main bronchus cases (6.25%). Diagnosis was made by using computed tomography and bronchoscopy. Five patients were treated with an explothoracotomy, and 7 underwent neck exploration with primary repair. Three patients simply needed conservative management, and 1 patient was treated with a closed thoracostomy. The post-operative mortality rate was 6.25 % (1 patient).
CONCLUSION
Airway trauma is dangerous and should be treated as an emergency, so a high index of suspicion is essential for rapid diagnosis and successful surgical intervention in patients with airway injuries.
Summary
Early Surgical Stabilization of Ribs for Severe Multiple Rib Fractures
Jung Joo Hwang, Young Jin Kim, Han Young Ryu, Hyun Min Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):12-17.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A rib fracture secondary to blunt thoracic trauma continues to be an important injury with significant complications. Unfortunately, there are no definite treatment guidelines for severe multiple rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of early operative stabilization and to find the risk factors of surgical fixation in patients with bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments.
METHODS
From December 2005 to December 2008, the medical records of all patients who underwent operative stabilization of ribs for severe multiple rib fractures were reviewed. We investigated patients' demographics, preoperative comorbidities, underlying lung disease, chest trauma, other associated injuries, number of surgical rib fixation, combined operations, perioperative ventilator support, and postoperative complications to find the factors affecting the mortality after surgical treatment.
RESULTS
The mean age of the 96 patients who underwent surgical stabilization for bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments was 56.7 years (range: 22 to 82 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1. Among the 96 patients, 16 patients (16.7%) underwent reoperation under general or epidural anesthesia due to remaining fracture with severe displacement. The surgical mortality of severe multiple rib fractures was 8.3% (8/96), 7 of those 8 patients (87.5%) dying from acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis. And the other one patient expired from acute myocardial infarction. The risk factors affecting mortality were liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant severe head or abdominal injuries, perioperative ventilator care, postoperative bleeding or pneumonia, and tracheostomy. However, age, number of fractured ribs, lung parenchymal injury, pulmonary contusion and combined operations were not significantly related to mortality.
CONCLUSION
In the present study, surgical fixation of ribs could be carried out as a first-line therapeutic option for bilateral rib fractures or flail segments without significant complications if the risk factors associated with mortality were carefully considered. Furthermore, with a view of restoring pulmonary function, as well as chest wall configuration, early operative stabilization of the ribs is more helpful than conventional treatment for patients with severe multiple rib fractures.
Summary
Predictive Factors for MDCT as a Primary Survey in Traumatic Cervical Spine Injury
Guen E Pak, Chul Han, Young Duck Cho, Jung Youn Kim, Young Hoon Yoon, Sung Woo Lee, Sung Woo Moon, Sung Hyuk Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):18-24.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Missing cervical pathology after injury may lead to disability and influence long-term survival. Controversies continue to evolve concerning the initial screening methods used to predict cervical spine injury. Through a retrospective chart review, we attempted to analyze and propose factors predictive of cervical trauma.
METHODS
Of all the patients who had visited the Emergency Department of Korea University, from January 2009 to December 2009, a retrospective review of the clinical records of the 217 patients who had undergone cervical spine computed tomography was done. We investigated whether we could predict the need for cervical spine computed tomography shortly after presentation in trauma patients by comparing the group with fractures and group without fractures and by finding risk factors showing significant differences between the two groups that might be used as guides in decision making.
RESULTS
Of the 217 subjects who underwent cervical spine computed tomography scans, 33 were identified with fractures of the cervical spine while 184 were not. The most common mechanisms of trauma, in order, for those with fractures were falls, followed by traffic accidents. We found that the injury severity score, multiple injuries, a high-energy injury mechanism, neurologic deficit, and pain and tenderness of the cervical spine showed statistically significant differences between the two groups.
CONCLUSION
Fractures of the cervical spine that are not observed with simple radiography occur with a relatively high frequency in trauma patients. Consideration should be given to the risk factors for cervical spine fracture, and if pertinent, cervical spine computed tomography should be performed with speed for early diagnosis of cervical spine fractures.
Summary
Delayed Transfer of Major Trauma Patients Under the Current Emergency Medical System in Korea
Kyoung won Jung, Jeong moon Jang, Jiyoung Kim, Suk ja Baek, Seo young Song, Chan suk Gang, Kug jong Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):25-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Major trauma patients should be transferred to a definitive care facility as early as possible because prompt management will prevent death. This study was designed to discover the obstacles leading to delayed transfers under the current emergency medical system in Korea and whether there are any negative outcomes associated with conducting procedures at primary care hospitals prior to transferring patients to higher levels of care.
METHODS
The medical records of major trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score above 15 within the past year were reviewed. Patients were divided three groups as follows: (A) came directly to our emergency center, (B) were transferred without CT or MRI scan at the primary care hospital and (C) transferred with CT or MRI scans. The transfer time of each group were compared and analyzed statistically. Additionally, the number and type of imaging performed at the primary care hospital were analyzed.
RESULTS
All qualified patients (n=276) were enrolled in this study: 121 patients in group A; 104 in group B; 51 in group C. There was a statistically significant difference in the transfer time between the three groups (p-value<0.001), and 79 (28.6%) were transferred to an emergency medical center within one hour. In group C, CT or MRI scans were performed an average of 1.86 times at the primary care hospital, and the median transfer time was 4 hours 5 minutes.
CONCLUSION
Only 28.6% of the cases in the study arrived within the golden hour at a definitive care facility. Such delays are in part the result of prolonged times at the primary care hospital for radiologic examinations, such as CT or MRI scans. Major multiple trauma patients should be transferred to a definitive care facility directly or as soon as the primary survey and the resuscitation of Advanced Trauma Life Support guideline are completed at the primary care hospital.
Summary
Correlation Between Pulmonary Contusion and Myocardial Contusion in Patients with Multiple Injuries
Ji Ho Ryu, Seok Ran Yeom, Jin Woo Jeong, Mun Ki Min, Maeng Real Park, Yong In Kim, Sang Kyun Han, Sung Wook Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):31-36.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
This study was conducted to evaluate the correlations among pulmonary contusion severity, trauma score and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) level.
METHODS
We prospectively evaluated patients with multiple injuries who had been admitted to the emergency department (ED) from July 2007 to July 2008. We first measured the total creatinine kinase (CK), the MB fraction of CK (CK-MB), TnI, and myoglobin within 2 hours after the injury. We then checked the electrocardiogram, x-ray, and computed tomography (CT) results. Finally, we assessed the injuries as variables and then compared the results for patients with elevated TnI levels (group A) and patients whose TnI levels fell within the normal range (group B).
RESULTS
Eighty-six of the 92 patients admitted to the ED were enrolled. The pulmonary contusion score (PCS) was well correlated with PaO2/FiO2. TnI levels were correlated with PCS. When TnI levels were above 0.86 ng/ml, the mortality was estimated with 100% sensitivity and 86.1% specificity.
CONCLUSION
Pulmonary contusion severity is correlated with TnI level. When the PCS is high and the cTnI level is elevated in multiple-injury patients, we recommend continuous cardiac monitoring and further evaluation.
Summary
Experience with the Treatment of Patients with Major Trauma at the Department of Trauma Surgery in One Regional Emergency Medical Center for One Year
Taeyoen Kim, Kyoungwon Jung, Junsik Kwon, Jiyoung Kim, Suk ja Baek, Seo young Song, Chan suk Gang, Kug jong Lee
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):37-44.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Recently, social interest in an organized trauma system for the treatment of patients has been increasing in government and academia and the establishment of trauma center is being considered across the country. However, establishing such a system has not been easy in Korea, because enormous experiences and resources are necessary. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate a trauma patient's demands during the course of treatment and (2) to provide appropriate direction for trauma centers to be established in Korea.
METHODS
The records of 207 patients who were admitted to the Department of Trauma Surgery in Ajou University Medical Center due to trauma were retrospectively reviewed for a 1 year period from March 2010 to February 2011. Patients were reviewed for general characteristics, number of hospital days, numbers and kinds of surgeries, numbers and kinds of consultations, ISS (Injury Severity Score) and number of patients with ISS more than 15.
RESULTS
All 207 patients were enrolled. The average number of hospital days was 36.7 days. The ICU stay was 15.9 days, and the general ward stay was 20.8 days. Admitted patients occupied 9.02 beds in ICU and 11.80 beds in the general ward per day. The average number of surgeries per patient was 1.4, and surgery at the Department of Trauma Surgery was most common. Number of consultations per patient was 14.23, and consultations with orthopedic surgeons were most common. The average ISS was 18.6. The number of patients with ISS more than 15 was 141 (61.8%) and the average number of patients treated per trauma surgeon as a major trauma patient was 94.3. The number of mortalities was 20, and the mortality rate was 9.7%.
CONCLUSION
To reduce mortality and to provide proper treatment of patients with major trauma, hospitals need some number of beds, especially in the ICU, to treat patients and to prepare them for emergent surgery. An appropriate number of trauma surgeons and various specialists for consultation are also needed.
Summary
Case Reports
Cervical Esophageal Perforation after Blunt Trauma
Hyun Min Cho, Young Jin Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):45-47.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Esophageal perforation due to blunt trauma is rare. A 67-year-old male presented to Konyang University Hospital with painful neck swelling. His neck was injured by blunt trauma at work. Esophageal perforation was detected by neck CT and esophagography. We performed primary repair of cervical esophagus through the Lt. neck approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged at postoperative day 15.
Summary
A Case Study of a Patient with Penetrating Neck Injuries caused by a Nail Gun
Jong Soon Han, You Dong Sohn, Ji Yoon Ahn, Hee Cheol Ahn, Hyuk Sool Kwon, Gang Yeol Seo, Kwang Yun Cho, Seung Min Park
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):48-51.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Powered by compressed air, a nail gun is an essential alternative tool to a hammer on any construction site. This useful machine launches nails at high speed, automatically embedding them in a piece of wood in only a fraction of a second. In spite of its convenience, life-threatening and fatal nail gun injuries can occur when a nail gun is misused, such as in a suicide attempt, or when the operator has insufficient training because combustion nail guns are capable of firing projectiles at velocities higher than 150 m per second. Although injuries by nail guns are rarely reported, there have been reports of nail gun injuries to the head and the trachea in Korea. In the emergency room, the authors experienced a patient injured by an accidental shooting of a nail gun while working in construction. In that accident, a nail penetrated the patient's cervical vertebra through the left cheek. This report is aimed at studying medical treatment for patients with penetrating injuries caused by nail guns.
Summary
Delayed Splenic Rupture Following Minor Trauma in a Patient with Underlying Liver Cirrhosis
Kyung Woon Jeung, Byung Kook Lee, Hyun Ho Ryu
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):52-55.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The spleen is the most frequently injured organ following blunt abdominal trauma. However, delayed splenic rupture is rare. As the technical improvement of computed tomography has proceeded, the diagnosis of splenic injury has become easier than before. However, the diagnosis of delayed splenic rupture could be challenging if the trauma is minor and remote. We present a case of delayed splenic rupture in a patient with underlying liver cirrhosis. A 42-year-old male visited our emergency department with pain in the lower left chest following minor blunt trauma. Initial physical exam and abdominal sonography revealed only liver cirrhosis without traumatic injury. On the sixth day after trauma, he complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating snacks. The patient was misdiagnosed as having acute gastroenteritis until he presented with symptoms of shock. Abdominal sonography and computed tomography revealed the splenic rupture. The patient underwent a splenectomy and then underwent a second operation due to postoperative bleeding 20 hours after the first operation. The patient was discharged uneventfully 30 days after trauma. In the present case, the thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly due to liver cirrhosis are suspected of being risk factors for the development of delayed splenic rupture. The physician should keep in mind the possibility of delayed splenic rupture following blunt abdominal or chest trauma.
Summary
Case of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Treated by using a Bedside Open Linea Alba Fasciotomy
Ji Hoon T Kim, Myung Sik Han, Gun Moo Choi, Hyuck Jae Jang, Jin Ho Kwak, Ji Hoon S Kim
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):56-59.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening disorder caused by rapidly increasing intraabdominal pressure. ACS can result in multiorgan failure and carries a mortality of 60~70%. The treatment of choice in ACS is surgical decompression. There are very few reports of ACS and experience in Korea. We report 12-year-old male patient who developed an abdominal compartment syndrome due to traffic-accident-induced retroperitoneal hematomas, Which was successfully treated by performing a bedside emergency surgical decompression with open linea alba fasciotomy with intact peritoneum. When patients do not respond to medical therapy, a decompressive laparotomy is the last surgical resort. In patients with severe abdominal compartment syndrome, the use of a linea alba fasciotomy is an effective intervention to lower intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) without the morbidity of a laparotomy. Use of a linea alba fasciotomy as a first-line intervention before committing to full abdominal decompression in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome improves physiological variables without mortality. Consideration for a linea alba fasciotomy as a bridge before full abdominal decompression needs further evaluation in patients with polytrauma abdominal compartment syndrome.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury