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14 "Rib fracture"
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Original Articles
Chest wall injury fracture patterns are associated with different mechanisms of injury: a retrospective review study in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Owen P. Karsmarski, Jeremy Fridling, T. Russell Hill, Chasen J Greig, Sarah Posillico, Carol McGuiness, Erin McLaughlin, Stephanie C. Montgomery, Manuel Moutinho, Ronald Gross, Evert A. Eriksson, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2024;37(1):48-59.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0065
  • 857 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Research on rib fracture management has exponentially increased. Predicting fracture patterns based on the mechanism of injury (MOI) and other possible correlations may improve resource allocation and injury prevention strategies. The Chest Injury International Database (CIID) is the largest prospective repository of the operative and nonoperative management of patients with severe chest wall trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the MOI is associated with the resulting rib fracture patterns. We hypothesized that specific MOIs would be associated with distinct rib fracture patterns.
Methods
The CIID was queried to analyze fracture patterns based on the MOI. Patients were stratified by MOI: falls, motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), motorcycle collisions (MCCs), automobile-pedestrian collisions, and bicycle collisions. Fracture locations, associated injuries, and patient-specific variables were recorded. Heat maps were created to display the fracture incidence by rib location.
Results
The study cohort consisted of 1,121 patients with a median RibScore of 2 (0–3) and 9,353 fractures. The average age was 57±20 years, and 64% of patients were male. By MOI, the number of patients and fractures were as follows: falls (474 patients, 3,360 fractures), MVCs (353 patients, 3,268 fractures), MCCs (165 patients, 1,505 fractures), automobile-pedestrian collisions (70 patients, 713 fractures), and bicycle collisions (59 patients, 507 fractures). The most commonly injured rib was the sixth rib, and the most common fracture location was lateral. Statistically significant differences in the location and patterns of fractures were identified comparing each MOI, except for MCCs versus bicycle collisions.
Conclusions
Different mechanisms of injury result in distinct rib fracture patterns. These different patterns should be considered in the workup and management of patients with thoracic injuries. Given these significant differences, future studies should account for both fracture location and the MOI to better define what populations benefit from surgical versus nonoperative management.
Summary
Clinical characteristics of patients with the hardware failure after surgical stabilization of rib fractures in Korea: a case series
Na Hyeon Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Dong Yeon Ryu, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hohyun Kim, Gil Hwan Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Hyun Min Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(3):196-205.   Published online September 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0026
  • 1,538 View
  • 51 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) is widely used in patients with flail chests, and several studies have reported the efficacy of SSRF even in multiple rib fractures. However, few reports have discussed the hardware failure (HF) of implanted plates. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with HF after SSRF and further investigate the related factors.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who underwent SSRF for multiple rib fractures at a level I trauma center in Korea between January 2014 and January 2021. We defined HF as the unintentional loosening of screws, dislocation, or breakage of the implanted plates. The baseline characteristics, surgical outcomes, and types of HF were assessed.
Results
During the study period, 728 patients underwent SSRF, of whom 80 (10.9%) were diagnosed with HF. The mean age of HF patients was 56.5±13.6 years, and 66 (82.5%) were men. There were 59 cases (73.8%) of screw loosening, 21 (26.3%) of plate breakage, 17 (21.3%) of screw migration, and seven (8.8%) of plate dislocation. Nine patients (11.3%) experienced wound infection, and 35 patients (43.8%) experienced chronic pain. A total of 21 patients (26.3%) underwent reoperation for plate removal. The patients in the reoperation group were significantly younger, had fewer fractures and plates, underwent costal fixation, and had a longer follow-up. There were no significant differences in subjective chest symptoms or lung capacity.
Conclusions
HF after SSRF occurred in 10.9% of the cases, and screw loosening was the most common. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify risk factors for SSRF failure.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Komplikationen nach operativer vs. konservativer Versorgung des schweren Thoraxtraumas
    Lars Becker, Marcel Dudda, Christof Schreyer
    Die Unfallchirurgie.2024; 127(3): 204.     CrossRef
Outcomes after rib fractures: more complex than a single number
Kristin P. Colling, Tyler Goettl, Melissa L. Harry
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):268-276.   Published online August 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0096
  • 2,637 View
  • 77 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Rib fractures are common injuries that can lead to morbidity and mortality.
Methods
Data on all patients with rib fractures admitted to a single trauma center between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018 were reviewed.
Results
A total of 1,671 admissions for rib fracture were examined. Patients’ median age was 57 years, the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 14, and the median number of fractured ribs was three. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4%. Age, the number of rib fractures, and Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were poor predictors of mortality, while the ISS was a slightly better predictor, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.60, 0.55, 0.58, and 0.74, respectively. Multivariate regression showed that age, ISS, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, but not the number of rib fractures, were associated with significantly elevated adjusted odds ratios for mortality (1.03, 1.14, and 1.28, respectively).
Conclusions
Age, ISS, and comorbidities were independently associated with the risk of mortality; however, they were not accurate predictors of death. The factors associated with rib fracture mortality are complex and cannot be explained by a single variable. Interventions to improve outcomes must be multifaceted.
Summary
National utilization of rib fracture fixation in the geriatric population in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Leah Aakjar, Kelsey Sullivan, Vijay Jayaraman, Manuel Moutinho, Elan Jeremitsky, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):173-180.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0076
  • 2,404 View
  • 55 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The use of surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) has steadily increased over the past decade. Recent literature suggests that a larger population may benefit from SSRF, and that the geriatric population—as the highest-risk population—may receive the greatest improvement from these interventions. We sought to determine the overall utilization of SSRF in the United States.
Methods
The National Trauma Database was analyzed between 2016 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were all patients ≥65 years old with rib fractures. We further stratified these patients according to age (65–79 vs. ≥80 years old), the presence of coding for flail chest, three or more rib fractures, and intervention (surgical vs. nonoperative management). The main outcomes were surgical interventions, mortality, pneumonia, length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, ventilator use, and tracheostomy.
Results
Overall, 93,638 patients were identified. SSRF was performed in 992 patients. Patients who underwent SSRF had improved mortality in the 65 to 79 age group, regardless of the number of ribs fractured. We identified 92,637 patients in the age group of 65 to 79 years old who did not undergo SSRF. This represents an additional 20,000 patients annually who may benefit from SSRF.
Conclusions
By conservative standards and the well-established Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma clinical practice guidelines, SSRF is underutilized. Our data suggest that SSRF may be very beneficial for the geriatric population, specifically those aged 65 to 79 years with any rib fractures. We hypothesize that roughly 20,000 additional cases will meet the inclusion criteria for SSRF each year. It is therefore imperative that we train acute care surgeons in this skill set.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidence of adult rib fracture injuries and changing hospitalization practice patterns: a 10-year analysis
    Sergio M. Navarro, Rafat H. Solaiman, Jilun Zhang, Ilitch Diaz-Gutierrez, Christopher Tignanelli, James V. Harmon
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Report
Iatrogenic Delayed Aortic Injury Following a Surgical Stabilization of Flail Chest
Junepill Seok, Hyun Min Cho, Seon Hee Kim, Ho Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2018;31(3):174-176.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.037
  • 2,826 View
  • 41 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF

Most of aortic injuries after blunt chest trauma usually occur at the aortic isthmus and are identified in the emergency department soon after arrival. Delayed aortic injures by fractured posterior ribs, however, are relatively rare and have been reported only a few times. We recently experienced an iatrogenic descending aortic injury sustained as a result of a direct puncture by a sharp rib end after surgical stabilization of rib fractures.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Surgical Stabilisation of Traumatic Rib Fractures with Chronic, Residual Type A Aortic Dissection
    Kieran J. Matic, Rajkumar Cheluvappa, Selwyn Selvendran
    Healthcare.2021; 9(4): 392.     CrossRef
Original Article
Prognosis of Pulmonary Function in Patients with Multiple Rib Fractures
Hee Beom Park, Sung Youl Hyun, Jin Joo Kim, Yeon Sik Jang
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):179-185.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.179
  • 10,854 View
  • 101 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Rib fracture is the most common complication of blunt thoracic trauma. We investigated the effect of rib fracture on pulmonary function in the conservatively treated patients.

Methods

From January 2000 to February 2017, we reviewed the records of 72 patients with rib fracture and pulmonary function tests were performed. According to the number of rib fractures, patients were classified into two groups: less than six fractured ribs (group A) and more than six fractured ribs (group B). The groups were compared concerning demographics, underlying diseases, associated thoracic injuries, surgery, mechanical ventilator times, days spent in the intensive care unit and pulmonary function test.

Results

There were no statistically significant differences in the demographic data between the two groups. Mean hospitalization was 13.5 days in group A and 27.0 days in group B (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the pulmonary function test.

Conclusions

We conclude that pulmonary function is restored by conservative treatment in patients with rib fractures even if the number of rib fractures increases. In patients with multiple rib fractures, studies comparing open rib fixation and conservative treatment of long term pulmonary function are required.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence of chronic post-thoracotomy pain in patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures in South Korea: a cross-sectional study
    Kun Hyung Kim, Chan Kyu Lee, Seon Hee Kim, Youngwoong Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Yu Kyung Shin, Junepill Seok, Hyun Min Cho
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Yoga—An Alternative Form of Therapy in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Mallikarjun Gunjiganvi, Purva Mathur, Minu Kumari, Karan Madan, Atin Kumar, Rajesh Sagar, Sushma Sagar, Amit Gupta, Biplab Mishra, Altaf Hussain Mir, Mohini Meti, Subodh Kumar
    World Journal of Surgery.2021; 45(7): 2015.     CrossRef
  • Medicolegal Evaluation of Long-Term Respiratory Functions in Patients Injured Due to Traffic Accidents
    Esra Dugral, Aydin Sanli, İsmail Ozgur Can
    Cureus.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Case Reports
Delayed Diaphragmatic Injury with Massive Hemothorax Due to Lower Rib Fracture
Woo Shik Kim, Joong Suck Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(2):79-82.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.2.79
  • 2,091 View
  • 11 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Simple rib fracture is one of most common injury after blunt thoracic trauma found in approximately 7% to 40% of cases. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic injury with massive hemothorax after rib fracture is rare but a potentially life-threatening condition. We present a rare case of a 79-year-old male with delayed diaphragmatic injury with massive hemothorax due to fracture of the lower ribs. Under thoracoscopy, hemothorax was evacuated, diaphragmatic rupture was identified and repaired, and the lower ribs were fixed with metal plate (s). Although simple lower rib fractures may be the only clinical finding, close observation and monitoring are required because of the possibility of diaphragmatic and/or intraabdominal organ injury.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Fatal Delayed Hemothorax after Simple Rib Fracture
    Minju Lee, Sang Bum Lim, Hye Jeong Kim, Sohyung Park, Hongil Ha
    Korean Journal of Legal Medicine.2017; 41(2): 56.     CrossRef
Delayed Aortic Injury Caused by a Posterior Rib Fracture: A Case Report
Chang Wan Kim, Seon Uoo Choi, Seon Hee Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Jung Joo Hwang, Hyun Min Cho, Seung Hwan Song, Jeong Su Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2015;28(1):31-33.   Published online March 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2015.28.1.31
  • 1,983 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Traumatic aortic injury is well recognized as a primary cause of instantaneous death in victims of thoracic blunt trauma presenting with an aortic rupture or dissection, particularly after a deceleration injury. However, a direct aortic injury caused by a fractured rib segment after blunt thoracic trauma is extremely rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old male patient who experienced an aortic injury caused by the sharp edge of a fractured rib after multiple rib fractures due to blunt thoracic trauma.
Summary
Original Articles
Influence of Multiple Rib Fracture upon Traumatic Hemo-pneumothorax
Seung Joon Yang, Jewon Lee, Sang Chan Jin, Myeong Don Joo, Woo Ik Choi
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2008;21(2):91-99.
  • 1,525 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
Multiple rib fracture (MRF) and a hemopneumothorax accompany with most blunt chest traumas. We aimed to analyze the factors increasing the probability of a hemopneumothorax. In addition, other injuries accompanying MRF were analyzed.
METHODS
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 154 mutiple rib fracture patients who visited our hospital between January 2005 and December 2007. The medical records were reviewed for sex, age, mechanism of injury, location, number of fractures, distance of dislocated rib fragments, and presence of complications. We measured the distance of bony dislocations by using the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System).
RESULTS
The average number of rib fractures was 3.7+/-2.1, and the number of rib fractures significantly influenced the incidence of a hemothorax (p<0.001). The risk of a phemothorax was increased in a bilateral MRF compared to a unilateral MRF (p=0.027). The distance of dislocated rib fragments influenced the probability of a hemothorax significantly (p=0.018), and subcutaneous emphysema and lung contusion were significantly associated with a pneumothorax (p=0.021, p=0.036).
CONCLUSION
The number of MRFs did not influence the risk for a pneumothorax, but did influence the risk for a hemothorax. The laterality, distance of dislocation, also had an influence on the risk for a hemothorax. Also, subcutaneous emphysema and lung contusion were increased in cases with a pneumothorax. We must consider the possibility of a hemothorax even when the initial chest X-ray shows no evidence of a hemothorax. If a lung contusion is present, then an occult pneumothorax must be considered.
Summary
Early Surgical Stabilization of Ribs for Severe Multiple Rib Fractures
Jung Joo Hwang, Young Jin Kim, Han Young Ryu, Hyun Min Cho
J Korean Soc Traumatol. 2011;24(1):12-17.
  • 1,176 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A rib fracture secondary to blunt thoracic trauma continues to be an important injury with significant complications. Unfortunately, there are no definite treatment guidelines for severe multiple rib fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the result of early operative stabilization and to find the risk factors of surgical fixation in patients with bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments.
METHODS
From December 2005 to December 2008, the medical records of all patients who underwent operative stabilization of ribs for severe multiple rib fractures were reviewed. We investigated patients' demographics, preoperative comorbidities, underlying lung disease, chest trauma, other associated injuries, number of surgical rib fixation, combined operations, perioperative ventilator support, and postoperative complications to find the factors affecting the mortality after surgical treatment.
RESULTS
The mean age of the 96 patients who underwent surgical stabilization for bilateral multiple rib fractures or flail segments was 56.7 years (range: 22 to 82 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 3.6:1. Among the 96 patients, 16 patients (16.7%) underwent reoperation under general or epidural anesthesia due to remaining fracture with severe displacement. The surgical mortality of severe multiple rib fractures was 8.3% (8/96), 7 of those 8 patients (87.5%) dying from acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis. And the other one patient expired from acute myocardial infarction. The risk factors affecting mortality were liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, concomitant severe head or abdominal injuries, perioperative ventilator care, postoperative bleeding or pneumonia, and tracheostomy. However, age, number of fractured ribs, lung parenchymal injury, pulmonary contusion and combined operations were not significantly related to mortality.
CONCLUSION
In the present study, surgical fixation of ribs could be carried out as a first-line therapeutic option for bilateral rib fractures or flail segments without significant complications if the risk factors associated with mortality were carefully considered. Furthermore, with a view of restoring pulmonary function, as well as chest wall configuration, early operative stabilization of the ribs is more helpful than conventional treatment for patients with severe multiple rib fractures.
Summary
Case Reports
Horner's Syndrome after a Fracture of the First Rib Caused by a Crushing Injury
Dae Sung Ma, Hyun Jin Cho, Jung Nam Lee, Yang Bin Jeon
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):201-203.
  • 1,102 View
  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Patients with Horner's syndrome exhibit a variety of symptoms, including miosis, palpebral ptosis, and anhidrosis. This syndrome is caused by interruptions of the sympathetic neural pathways. This paper describes two cases of patients with Horner's syndrome who experienced a first rib fracture after crushing injuries.
Summary
Penetrating Injury to the Left Ventricle from a Fractured Rib Following Blunt Chest Trauma
Tak Hyuk Oh, Sang Cjeol Lee, Deok Heon Lee, Joon Yong Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(4):192-195.
  • 1,047 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The perforation of a cardiac chamber by a fractured rib after blunt trauma is a rare event. Here, we report the case of patient who was referred for multiple rib fractures after a fall from a height. The patient was found to have a penetrating cardiac injury which was detected on a computed tomography chest scan. Computed tomography is a useful screening tool for victims of blunt chest trauma. Once cardiac perforation has been confirmed or is highly suspected, it is important to preserve the patient's vital signs until reaching the operating room by minimally manuplating the chest wall and permitting hypotension, which also prevents exsanguinating hemorrhage. For the same reasons, early cardiac tamponade may also improve the patient's survival.
Summary
Case Report of a Simple Rib Fracture Caused by Coughing
Woo Ik Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2014;27(1):9-12.
  • 1,294 View
  • 15 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Violent or severe persistent coughing is rarely associated with rib fracture. We report a rare case of a cough-induced rib fracture in a patient without any traumatic history or any other underlying disease. A 32-year-old female presented to the emergency department complaining of having had right-sided pleuritic chest pain for 5 days. She had a background of an 8-week coughing illness. A posteroanterior view of the chest radiograph showed no definite fractured line. Chest computed tomography revealed a subtle break cortical line of the 7th rib in the right-sided chest wall. Early identification of a cough-induced fracture of the rib by using computed tomography may avoid unnecessary further work-ups including laboratory examination and may lead to appropriate discharge instructions including rest and reassurance. The clinical presentations and radiologic findings of rib fractures caused by coughing are presented along with a review of the literature.
Summary
Original Article
Comparison of Rib Fracture Location for Morbidity and Mortality in Flail Chest
Chun Sung Byun, Il Hwan Park, Geum Suk Bae, Pil Yeong Jeong, Joong Hwan Oh
J Trauma Inj. 2013;26(3):170-174.
  • 1,169 View
  • 5 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
PURPOSE
A flail chest is one of most challenging problems for trauma surgeons. It is usually accompanied by significant underlying pulmonary parenchymal injuries and mayled to a life-threatening thoracic injury. In this study, we evaluated the treatment result for a flail chest to determine the effect of trauma localization on morbidity and mortality.
METHODS
Between 2004 and 2011, 46 patients(29 males/17 females) were treated for a flail chest. The patients were divided into two group based on the location of the trauma in the chest wall; Group I contained patients with an anterior flail chest due to a bilateral costochondral separation (n=27) and Group II contained patients with a single-side posterolateral flail chest due to a segmental rib fracture (n=19). The location of the trauma in the chest wall, other injuries, mechanical ventilation support, prognosis and ISS (injury severity score) were retrospectively examined in the two groups.
RESULTS
Mechanical ventilation support was given in 38 patients(82.6%), and 7 of these 38 patients required a subsequent tracheostomy. The mean ISS for all 46 patients was 19.08+/-10.57. Between the two groups, there was a significant difference in mean ventilator time (p<0.048), but no significant difference in either trauma-related morbidity (p=0.369) or mortality (p=0.189).
CONCLUSION
An anterior flail chest frequently affects the two underlying lung parenchyma and can cause a bilateral lung contusion, a hemopneumothorax and lung hemorrhage. Thus, it needs longer ventilator care than a lateral flail chest does and is more frequently associated with pulmonary complications with poor outcome than a lateral flail chest is. In a severe trauma patient with a flail chest, especially an anterior flail chest, we must pay more attention to the pulmonary care strategy and the bronchial toilet.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury