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Volume 35(2); June 2022
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Review Article
Evolution of trauma care and the trauma registry in the West Australian health system
Mayura Thilanka Iddagoda, Maxine Burrell, Sudhakar Rao, Leon Flicker
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):71-75.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0060
  • 2,369 View
  • 69 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Trauma care is evolving throughout the world to meet the demand resulting from rapidly increasing rates of mortality and morbidity related to external injuries. The State Major Trauma Service was designated to Royal Perth Hospital in 2004 to provide comprehensive care for trauma patients in Western Australia (WA), which is the largest state by area in the country. The State Major Trauma Unit, which was established in 2008, functions as a level I center and admits over 1,000 major trauma patients per year, making it the second busiest trauma center in Australia. The importance of recording data related to trauma was identified by the trauma service in WA to inspire higher standards of patient care and injury prevention. In 1994, the service established a trauma registry, which has undergone significant changes over the last two decades. The current State Trauma Registry is linked to a statewide database called the Data Linkage System. The linked data are available for policy development, quality assurance, and research. This article discusses the evolution of the trauma service and the registry database in the WA health system. The State Trauma Registry has enormous potential to contribute to research and quality improvement studies along with its ability to link with other databases.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Development of a standardized minimum dataset for including low‐severity trauma patients in trauma registry collections in Australia and Aotearoa New Zealand
    Grant Christey, Jacelle Warren, Cameron S. Palmer, Maxine Burrell, Kirsten Vallmuur
    ANZ Journal of Surgery.2023; 93(3): 572.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Clinical implications of the newly defined concept of ventilator-associated events in trauma patients
Tae Yeon Lee, Jeong Woo Oh, Min Koo Lee, Joong Suck Kim, Jeong Eun Sohn, Jeong Hwan Wi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):76-83.   Published online December 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0064
  • 2,217 View
  • 77 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with mechanical ventilation. In 2013, the new concept of ventilator- associated events (VAEs) replaced the traditional concept of ventilator-associated pneumonia. We analyzed risk factors for VAE occurrence and in-hospital mortality in trauma patients who received mechanical ventilatory support.
Methods
In this retrospective review, the study population comprised patients admitted to the Jeju Regional Trauma Center from January 2020 to January 2021. Data on demographics, injury characteristics, and clinical findings were collected from medical records. The subjects were categorized into VAE and no-VAE groups according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network VAE criteria. We identified risk factors for VAE occurrence and in-hospital mortality.
Results
Among 491 trauma patients admitted to the trauma center, 73 patients who received ventilator care were analyzed. Patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3 had a 4.7-fold higher VAE rate (odds ratio [OR], 4.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–17.9), and those with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <75 mL/min/1.73 m2 had 4.1-fold higher odds of VAE occurrence (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.32–14.1) and a nearly 4.2-fold higher risk for in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.30–14.3). The median VAE-free duration of patients with chest AIS ≥3 was significantly shorter than that of patients with chest AIS <3 (P=0.013).
Conclusions
Trauma patients with chest AIS ≥3 or GFR <75 mL/min/1.73 m2 on admission should be intensively monitored to detect at-risk patients for VAEs and modify the care plan accordingly. VAEs should be closely monitored to identify infections early and to achieve desirable results. We should also actively consider modalities to shorten mechanical ventilation in patients with chest AIS ≥3 to reduce VAE occurrence.
Summary
Age group analysis of patients with dog bite injuries who visited a single regional emergency medical center and factors affecting wound infections
Dong Ho Kang, Jea Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi, Jae Ho Jang, Jin-Seong Cho, Sung Youl Hyun
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):84-91.   Published online May 17, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0046
  • 2,281 View
  • 53 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The aim of this study was to analyze by age group the characteristics of patients with dog bite injuries, as well as determine which factors were associated with wound infections in those patients.
Methods
We reviewed patients with dog bite injuries who presented to Gachon University Gil Medical Center in Incheon, Korea from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. They were classified by age group: children (0–18 years), adults (19–59 years), or elderly (≥60 years). Event profiles, wound characteristics, and infections were compared across these age groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with wound infections.
Results
Of the total 972 dog bite injuries, 272 (28.0%) were in children, 606 (62.3%) were in adults, and 94 (9.7%) were in the elderly. The median age was 30 years (interquartile range, 16–48 years) and the majority of patients (60.5%) were female. The most common place of injury was at home (73.8%) and indoors (77.0%). In children, the head and neck were the most frequent sites of injury (43%), while the most frequent site in adults and the elderly (50.8% and 59.6%, respectively) was the upper extremity. The odds ratio (OR) for wound infection was 3.997 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.279–12.491; P=0.017) for head and neck injuries and 3.881 (95% CI, 1.488–10.122; P=0.006) for lower extremity injuries. The OR for wound infection was 4.769 (95% CI, 2.167–10.494; P<0.001) for significant injuries. Elderly patients had a higher risk for wound infection than other age groups (OR, 2.586; 95% CI, 1.221–5.475; P=0.013).
Conclusions
When analyzing patients with dog bite injuries, differences across age groups were found, with the elderly at the highest risk for significant injury and wound infection. It is recommended that age-specific approaches and strategies be used to prevent dog bite wound infections.
Summary
The incidence of unexpected delays in uploading outside radiologic images in the transfer of patients with major trauma
Si Jun Woo, Yong Oh Kim, Hyung Il Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):92-98.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0039
  • 1,621 View
  • 43 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Critically ill patients are frequently transferred from one point of care to a hospital that can provide a higher level of care. To achieve optimal treatment within the targeted window of time necessary for time-sensitive cases like major trauma, rapid transportation and decision making are essential. Transferred patients have often undergone radiologic imaging at the referring hospital. Examining these outside images is paramount. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the upload time of outside images.
Methods
This retrospective study was conducted from January to April 2020. Patients transferred from other hospitals with digitally recorded CDs or DVDs of radiologic or diagnostic images were included. When the patients were registered at the emergency department reception desk, the digital images were transmitted to our picture archiving and communication system using transmission software. The time of upload and the numbers of digital images were recorded. The time interval from patient registration to the time of upload was calculated.
Results
The median number of images was 688 in the trauma team activation (TTA) group (688 in the TTA group, 281 in the non-TTA trauma group, and 176 in the nontrauma group, respectively; P<0.001). The median upload time was 10 minutes. The longest upload time was 169 minutes. The upload time was more than 20 minutes in 12 cases (19.4%).
Conclusions
Patients with major trauma bring more images than patients with other diseases. Unexpected delays (>20 minutes) were noted in approximately 20% of cases. It is necessary to minimize this time.
Summary
The clinical pattern of intentional injuries at a primary Saudi Arabian trauma center
Bader Hamza Shirah, Hamza Asaad Shirah, Ibrahim Abdulaziz Zabeery, Osama Abdulqader Sogair, Ahmed Medawi Alahmari, Wael Awad Alhaidari, Maher Hamdan Alamri, Waal Nafa Aljabri
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):99-107.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0026
  • 2,879 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The term “intentional injuries” refers to a spectrum of injuries resulting from self-inflicted injuries, interpersonal violence, and group acts of violence. Intentional injuries are underreported in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to analyze and evaluate the characteristics of intentional injuries in patients who presented to the emergency department of a primary trauma center in Medina, Saudi Arabia in 2013.
Methods
A prospective cohort database analysis of the clinical patterns and treatment outcomes of 252 patients who had intentional injuries between January and December 2013 was done.
Results
The proportion of trauma patients with intentional injuries was 1.3%. The mean age was 34.2±9.4 years, 141 patients (56.0%) were males, and 111 (44.1%) were females (male to female ratio, 1.27:1). The majority (n=159, 63.1%) of injuries occurred at night. Most occurred outside the home (n=180, 71.0%). Financial problems (n=62, 24.6%) and social disputes (n=61, 24.2%) were the most common reasons. Sharp objects (n=93, 36.9%) were the most common weapons used. The head and neck were the most commonly injured areas (n=63, 54.4%). Superficial cuts (n=87, 34.5%), were the most common type of injury. Suturing of wounds (n=54, 21.4%) and surgical debridement (n=47, 18.7%) were the most commonly performed modalities of management.
Conclusions
We conclude that intentional injuries in Saudi Arabia are a health care hazard that is, unfortunately, underreported. The clinical pattern is similar in most aspects to international reports but differs in certain features due to the specific religious and conservative characteristics of the community. Nationwide clinical studies are strongly recommended.
Summary
Changes in patterns of plastic surgery emergencies at a level I trauma center in India during the COVID-19 pandemic
Veena Singh, Ansarul Haq, Sarsij Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar, Aditya Kumar, Amarjeet Kumar, Neeraj Kumar, Anil Kumar
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):108-114.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0015
  • 1,703 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had major effects worldwide, including sudden and forceful setbacks to the healthcare system. The COVID-19 pandemic has also led to changes in the plastic and reconstructive management of emergency cases, including those due to road traffic accidents. This study analyzed changes in patterns of plastic surgery emergencies and modifications in consultation policies to minimize the exposure of healthcare workers.
Methods
Data on plastic surgery emergency calls received from the trauma and emergency department were collected for a period of 2 months before and during lockdown. The data were then analyzed with respect to the cause, mechanism, and site of the injury, as well as other variables.
Results
During lockdown, there was a 40.4% overall decrease in the plastic surgery emergency case volume (168 vs. 100). The average daily number of consultations before lockdown was 2.8 as compared to 1.6 during lockdown. Road traffic accidents remained the most common mechanism of injury in both groups (45.8% vs. 39.0%) but decreased in number during the lockdown (77 vs. 39). Household accidents, including burns, were the second most common cause of injury in both phases (7.7% vs. 20.0%), but their proportion increased significantly from 7.7.% to 20.0% in the lockdown phase (P=0.003). The percentage of minor procedures done in the emergency department increased from 53.5% to 72.0% during lockdown (P=0.002). Procedures in the operating room decreased by 73.1% during lockdown (67 vs. 18, P=0.001).
Conclusions
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown orders in India greatly influenced trends in traumatic emergencies as observed by the plastic surgery team at our tertiary care center. Amidst all the chaos and limitations of the pandemic period, providing safe and prompt care to the patients presenting to the emergency room was our foremost priority.
Summary
Case Reports
A case report of “minor” trauma leading to a major disability: whiplash-associated dysphagia, dysphonia, and dysgeusia
Ami Schattner, Yair Glick
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):115-117.   Published online May 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0043
  • 2,365 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
“Whiplash”-type injuries are commonly encountered and often cause neck pain, neck stiffness, and headaches. However, these injuries can have rare and poorly recognized complications, such as the development of a prevertebral hematoma leading to acute respiratory failure in the emergency department, followed by severe, life-threatening dysphagia and recurrent aspirations. In the patient described herein, a whiplash injury was accompanied by vocal cord paralysis and dysphonia (vagus nerve), dysgeusia (glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve), and upper esophageal spasm (cricopharyngeal muscle, vagus nerve). It is unlikely that this was a complication of cervical fusion surgery. Instead, a combined stretch-induced lower cranial nerve injury, possibly on the exit of these nerves through the jugular foramen, seems to be a likely, but underappreciated mechanism occurring in rare instances of whiplash injuries.
Summary
Thoracoabdominal injury with evisceration from a chainsaw assault: a case report
Babatunde Abayomi Salami, Babatunde Adeteru Ayoade, El-Zaki Abdullahi Shomoye, Chigbundu Collins Nwokoro
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):118-122.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0012
  • 5,751 View
  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The usual cause of penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries with evisceration are stab wounds with knives and other sharp weapons used during fights and conflicts. Evisceration of the abdominal viscera as a result of trauma, with its attendant morbidity and mortality, requires early intervention. Gunshot wounds can also cause penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries. We report the case of a 52-year-old male patient, a worker at a timber-processing factory, who was assaulted with a chainsaw by his colleague following a disagreement. He was seen at the accident and emergency department of our hospital with a thoracoabdominal injury about 1.5 hours after the attack. He had a left thoracoabdominal laceration with abdominal evisceration and an open left pneumothorax. He was managed operatively, made a full recovery, and was discharged 16 days after admission. He was readmitted 4 months after the initial surgery with acute intestinal obstruction secondary to adhesions. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and adhesiolysis. He made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the ninth postoperative day for subsequent follow-up.
Summary
Case reports of iatrogenic vascular injury in the trauma field: what is the same and what is different?
Youngwoong Kim, Kyunghak Choi, Seongho Choi, Min Ae Keum, Sungjeep Kim, Kyu-Hyouck Kyoung, Jihoon T Kim, Minsu Noh
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):123-127.   Published online December 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0088
  • 2,547 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Iatrogenic vascular injury (IVI) can occur with any technique or type of surgery performed around a blood vessel. Patients with severe trauma are at risk of IVI. In this study, we describe our experiences of IVI in the trauma field. We reviewed five patients who were diagnosed with an IVI and received either surgical or endovascular treatment. Of the five patients, one had an arterial injury, three had venous injuries, and one had an arteriovenous fistula, a form of combined arterial and venous injuries. Of the five patients, four had undergone orthopedic surgery. The IVIs of three patients were immediately identified in the operating room and simultaneous vascular repair was performed. The remaining one patient underwent additional surgery for occlusion related to entrapment of the superficial femoral artery by a surgical wire used during orthopedic surgery. Complications presumably related to the IVI were identified in two patients. IVI in trauma patients can be successfully managed, but significant morbidity can occur. If an IVI is suspected, immediate evaluation and management are required.
Summary
Successful endovascular embolization for traumatic subcutaneous abdominal wall hematoma via the superficial inferior epigastric artery: a case report
Sung Nam Moon, Sang Hyun Seo, Hyun Seok Jung
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):128-130.   Published online June 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0079
  • 2,890 View
  • 115 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF

Abdominal wall hematoma (AWH) after blunt trauma is common, and most cases can be treated conservatively. More invasive treatment is required in patients with traumatic AWH if active bleeding is identified or there is no response to medical treatment. Herein, we report a case of endovascular embolization for traumatic subcutaneous AWH. Almost endovascular treatment for AHW is done through the deep inferior epigastric artery. However, in this case, the superficial inferior epigastric artery was the bleeding focus and embolization target. After understanding the vascular system of the abdominal wall, an endovascular approach and embolization is a safe and effective treatment option for AWH.

Summary
Penetrating sacral injury with a metallic pipe: a case report and literature review
Mahnjeong Ha, Kyoung Hyup Nam, Jae Hun Kim, In Ho Han
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):131-138.   Published online May 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0063
  • 2,933 View
  • 65 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Other than gunshot injuries, sacral penetrating injuries with a foreign body exiting to the other side are extremely rare. We encountered a case of sacral injury in which a long metallic pipe penetrated from the anus into the lower back of a patient. Since the pelvis contains various organs, management of a penetrating injury requires multidisciplinary treatment involving several medical specialties. Due to the infrequency of this type of injury, there are no definitive guidelines for effective management. We described our experience surgically treating a sacral penetrating injury and conducted a literature review. On this basis, we suggest a surgical strategy for treating this type of injury.
Summary
Acute pyomyositis of the adductor magnus muscle involving the posterior and lateral thigh compartments: a case report of diagnosis and management
Rajesh Bawale, Jay Watson, Karshe Yusuf, Dilip Pillai, Bijayendra Singh
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(2):139-143.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0022
  • 2,134 View
  • 39 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bacterial infection of skeletal muscle can lead to the formation of abscesses. Primary pyomyositis is typically seen in tropical countries, and Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest causative organism. We present a case of acute adductor magnus muscle abscess (pyomyositis) with spread to adjacent thigh compartments via the perforators without iliopsoas muscle involvement. Due to the involvement of the entire thigh compartment, systemic antibiotic treatment alone was insufficient, whereas surgical drainage improved the clinical picture. The aetiological organism was S. aureus. Herein, we report the case of a patient who had primary pyomyositis, rather than a secondary type, that spread to the posterior and lateral aspect of the thigh through the second and third perforators, which pierce the adductor magnus muscle belly before entering the femur.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Wheel of misfortune: A unique case of MRSA pyomyositis of the adductor muscle group from blunt unicycle trauma
    Jordan I. Gaelen, Toluwalase Awoyemi, Emmanuel Okematti, Meera Ramanathan
    Clinical Case Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury