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Volume 35(3); September 2022
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Review Article
Writing papers: literary and scientific
Kun Hwang
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):145-150.   Published online June 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0006
  • 2,069 View
  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
This paper aims to summarize why I write, how to find a motif, and how to polish and finish a manuscript. For William Carlos Williams, practicing medicine and writing poetry were two parts of a single whole, not each of the other. The two complemented each other. Medicine stimulated Williams to become a poet, while poetry was also the driving force behind his role as a doctor. Alexander Pope, the 18th century English poet, wrote a poem entitled “The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” that was dedicated to a friend who was both a poet and a physician. In this poem, we receive an answer to the questions of ‘‘Why do you write? Why do you publish?’’ Pope writes, “Happy my studies, when by these approv’d! / Happier their author, when by these belov’d! / From these the world will judge of men and books.” When I write, I first reflect on whether I only want to write something for its own sake, like “a dog chasing its own tail,’’ instead of making a more worthwhile contribution. When my colleagues ask me, “Why do you write essays as well as scientific papers?” I usually answer, “Writing is a process of healing for me—I cannot bear myself unless I write.” When the time comes to sit down and put pen to paper, I remind myself of the saying, festina lente (in German, Ohne Hast, aber ohne Rast, corresponding to the English proverb “more haste, less speed”). If I am utterly exhausted when I finish writing, then I know that I have had my vision.
Summary
Original Articles
Acute pain management in the trauma patient population: are we doing enough? A prospective observational study
Segni Kejela, Nebyou Seyoum
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):151-158.   Published online June 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0068
  • 2,681 View
  • 146 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
There is a strong correlation between trauma and pain. Pain increases the rate of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and even mortality in trauma patients.
Methods
This institution-based, provider-blinded and patient-blinded, observational study was conducted among trauma patients treated at a specialized center . Over the course of 3 months, this study included patients who had no prior pain management at other hospitals before presentation, and who presented within 24 hours of the traumatic event.
Results
Of the 74 patients evaluated, none of the patients had their pain level scored. The researcher-provided pain scale showed a severe subjective pain score for 79.7% of the patients and a severe functional activity score for 59.5% of the patients. Analgesia was provided at an average of 55.4 minutes after presentation and all patients received either diclofenac or tramadol. Satisfactory pain reduction after analgesia was 28.8% for patients initially complaining of severe pain, 54.6% for moderate pain, and 66.7% for mild pain, with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.05). Forty percent of patients discharged home received no analgesia after the first dose provided upon presentation.
Conclusions
Pain scoring was nonexistent during the course of the study. The poor utilization rate of analgesia combination and opioids led to unsatisfactory pain outcomes in patients evaluated and followed for 24 hours after presentation.
Summary
Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of posttraumatic hospitalized patients with symptoms related to venous thromboembolism: a single-center retrospective study
Hyung Su Park, Sung Youl Hyun, Woo Sung Choi, Jin-Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jea Yeon Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):159-167.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0052
  • 1,947 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of trauma inpatients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) symptoms diagnosed using computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in Korea
Methods
In total, 7,634 patients admitted to the emergency department of Gachon University Gil Medical Center, a tertiary hospital, and hospitalized between July 1, 2018 and December 31, 2020 were registered for this study. Of these patients, 278 patients who underwent CTA were enrolled in our study.
Results
VTE was found in 120 of the 7,634 patients (1.57%), and the positive diagnosis rate of the 278 patients who underwent CTA was 43.2% (120 of 278). The incidence of VTE was statistically significantly higher among those with severe head and neck injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale, 3–5) than among those with nonsevere head and neck injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale, 0–2; P=0.038). In a subgroup analysis, the severe and nonsevere head and neck injury groups showed statistically significant differences in known independent risk factors for VTE. In logistic regression analysis, the adjusted odds ratio of severe head and neck injury (Abbreviated Injury Scale, 3–5) for VTE was 1.891 (95% confidence interval, 1.043–3.430).
Conclusions
Trauma patients with severe head and neck injuries are more susceptible to VTE than those with nonsevere head and neck injuries. Thus, physicians must consider CTA as a priority for the diagnosis of VTE in trauma patients with severe head and neck injuries who show VTE-associated symptoms.
Summary
Outcomes of open neck injuries
Dongsub Noh, Jin Ho Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):168-172.   Published online June 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0056
  • 2,048 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The neck is a particularly critical region for penetrating injuries due to the close proximity of the trachea, esophagus, blood vessels, and the spinal cord. An open neck injury has the potential for serious morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the assessment and management of open neck injuries.
Methods
In this retrospective study, open neck injury patients who were admitted to NAME University Hospital Trauma Center between December 2015 and December 2017 were analyzed for epidemiology, the mechanism of trauma, the injured organ, complications, and mortality.
Results
Thirty-two patients presented with open neck injuries. All patients underwent computed tomographic angiography to evaluate their injuries once their vital signs stabilized. Among these patients, 27 required surgical treatment. The most commonly injured organ was the airway. There were five deaths, and the main cause of death was bleeding. Mortality was associated with the initial systolic blood pressure at the hospital and Glasgow Coma Scale.
Conclusions
Mortality from open neck injuries was associated with initial systolic blood pressure at the hospital and Glasgow Coma Scale.
Summary
National utilization of rib fracture fixation in the geriatric population in the United States
Jennifer M. Brewer, Leah Aakjar, Kelsey Sullivan, Vijay Jayaraman, Manuel Moutinho, Elan Jeremitsky, Andrew R. Doben
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):173-180.   Published online May 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0076
  • 2,184 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The use of surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) has steadily increased over the past decade. Recent literature suggests that a larger population may benefit from SSRF, and that the geriatric population—as the highest-risk population—may receive the greatest improvement from these interventions. We sought to determine the overall utilization of SSRF in the United States.
Methods
The National Trauma Database was analyzed between 2016 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were all patients ≥65 years old with rib fractures. We further stratified these patients according to age (65–79 vs. ≥80 years old), the presence of coding for flail chest, three or more rib fractures, and intervention (surgical vs. nonoperative management). The main outcomes were surgical interventions, mortality, pneumonia, length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, ventilator use, and tracheostomy.
Results
Overall, 93,638 patients were identified. SSRF was performed in 992 patients. Patients who underwent SSRF had improved mortality in the 65 to 79 age group, regardless of the number of ribs fractured. We identified 92,637 patients in the age group of 65 to 79 years old who did not undergo SSRF. This represents an additional 20,000 patients annually who may benefit from SSRF.
Conclusions
By conservative standards and the well-established Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma clinical practice guidelines, SSRF is underutilized. Our data suggest that SSRF may be very beneficial for the geriatric population, specifically those aged 65 to 79 years with any rib fractures. We hypothesize that roughly 20,000 additional cases will meet the inclusion criteria for SSRF each year. It is therefore imperative that we train acute care surgeons in this skill set.
Summary
Initial assessment of hemorrhagic shock by trauma computed tomography measurement of the inferior vena cava in blunt trauma patients
Gun Ho Lee, Jeong Woo Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):181-188.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0066
  • 1,942 View
  • 80 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Inferior vena cava (IVC) collapse is related to hypovolemia. Sonography has been used to measure the IVC diameter, but there is variation depending on the skill of the operator and it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements in patients who have a large amount of intestinal gas or are obese. As a modality to obtain accurate measurements, we measured the diameters of the IVC and aorta on trauma computed tomography scans and investigated the correlation between the IVC to aorta ratio and the shock index in blunt trauma patients.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 588 trauma patients who were transferred to the regional trauma center (level 1) of Wonkang University hospital from March 2020 to February 2021. We included trauma patients 18 years or older who met the trauma activation criteria and underwent trauma computed tomography scans with intravenous contrast within 40 minutes of admission. The shock index was calculated from vital signs before trauma computed tomography scan, and measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the IVC (AP), the transverse diameter of the IVC (T), and aorta were made 10 mm above the right renal vein in the venous phase.
Results
Overall, 271 patients were included in this study, of whom 150 had a shock index ≤0.7 and 121 had a shock index >0.7. The T to AP ratio and AP to aorta ratio were significantly different between groups. Cutoffs were identified for the T to AP ratio and AP to aorta ratio (2.37 and 0.62, respectively) that produced clinically useful sensitivity and specificity for predicting a shock index >0.7, demonstrating moderate accuracy (T to AP ratio: area under the curve, 0.71; sensitivity, 59%; specificity, 87% and AP to aorta ratio: area under the curve, 0.70; sensitivity, 55%; specificity, 91%).
Conclusions
The T to AP ratio and AP to aorta ratio are useful for predicting hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients.
Summary
Could the Injury Severity Score be a new indicator for surgical treatment in patients with traumatic splenic injury?
HyeJeong Jeong, SungWon Jung, Tae Gil Heo, Pyong Wha Choi, Jae Il Kim, Sung Min Jung, Heungman Jun, Yong Chan Shin, Eunhae Um
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):189-194.   Published online May 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0065
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) could serve as an indicator of splenectomy in patients with traumatic splenic lacerations.
Methods
A total of 256 cases of splenic laceration were collected from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2018. After the application of exclusion criteria, 105 were eligible for this study. Charts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, initial vital signs upon presentation to the emergency room, Glasgow Coma Scale, computed tomography findings, ISS, and treatment strategies. The cases were then divided into nonsplenectomy and splenectomy groups for analysis.
Results
When analyzed with the chi-square test and t-test, splenectomy was associated with a systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg, a Glasgow Coma Scale score lower than 13, active bleeding found on computed tomography, a splenic laceration grade greater than or equal to 4, and an ISS greater than 15 at presentation. However, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, only active bleeding on computed tomography showed a statistically significant relationship (P=0.014).
Conclusions
Although ISS failed to show a statistically significant independent relationship with splenectomy, it may still play a supplementary role in traumatic splenic injury management.
Summary
The impact of COVID-19 on trauma patients and orthopedic trauma operations at a single focused training center for trauma in Korea
Wonseok Choi, Hanju Kim, Whee Sung Son, Seungyeob Sakong, Jun-Min Cho, Nak-Jun Choi, Tae-Wook Noh, Namryeol Kim, Jae-Woo Cho, Jong-Keon Oh
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):195-201.   Published online December 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0078
  • 2,906 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the volume of trauma patients, the number of orthopedic trauma operations, and the severity of injuries. We also investigated the correlations between social distancing and these variables.

Methods

This was a retrospective review of trauma patient cases at a single focused training center for trauma in Korea from January 2017 to April 2021. The COVID-19 group included patients treated from January 1 to April 30 in 2020 and 2021, and the control group included patients treated during the same months from 2017 to 2019. The volume of trauma patients according to the level of social distancing was evaluated among patients treated from August 2, 2020 to November 23, 2020.

Results

The study included 3,032 patients who presented to the emergency department with traumatic injuries from January to April 2017 to 2021. The average number of patients was 646.7 and 546.0 in the control and COVID-19 groups, respectively. The percentage of patients injured in traffic accidents (TAs) decreased from 25.0% to 18.2% (p<0.0001). The proportions of in-car TAs and pedestrian TAs also decreased from 6.7% and 10.8% to 3.5% and 6.0%, respectively (p=0.0002 and p<0.0001). The percentage of bicycle TAs increased from 2.4% to 4.0% (p=0.0128). The proportion of patients with an Injury Severity Score above 15 and the mortality rate did not change significantly. As the level of social distancing increased, the number of trauma patients and the number of trauma injuries from TAs decreased. The number of orthopedic trauma operations also depended on the social distancing level.

Conclusions

The number of trauma patients presenting to the emergency department decreased during the COVID-19 period. The volume of trauma patients and orthopedic trauma operations decreased as the social distance level increased.

Summary
The effect of neuropathic pain on quality of life, depression levels, and sleep quality in patients with combat-related extremity injuries
Merve Örücü Atar, Gizem Kılınç Kamacı, Fatma Özcan, Yasin Demir, Koray Aydemir
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):202-208.   Published online August 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0019
  • 1,901 View
  • 69 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
There is limited research on the effects of neuropathic pain (NP) on quality of life, depression levels, and sleep quality in patients with combat-related extremity injuries. This study evaluated whether patients with combat-related extremity injuries with and without NP had differences in quality of life, sleep quality, and depression levels.
Methods
A total of 98 patients with combat-related extremity injuries, 52 with NP and 46 without, were included in this cross-sectional study. The presence of NP was determined using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs questionnaire. The outcome measures were a visual analogue scale (VAS), the 36-Item Short Form Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
Results
The VAS subparameter scores for pain (all P˂0.05), PSQI sleep duration subscale scores (P=0.025), PSQI sleep disturbance subscale scores (P=0.016), and PSQI total scores (P=0.020) were significantly higher in patients with NP than those without. Logistic regression analysis showed that VAS scores of 5 and above for average pain during the previous 4 weeks contributed independently to the prediction of NP.
Conclusions
Patients with combat-related extremity injuries with NP had more pain and poorer sleep quality than those without NP. Sleep quality should be evaluated as part of the diagnostic work-up in patients with combat-related extremity injury with NP, and interventions to improve sleep quality may help manage NP in this patient group.
Summary
Case Reports
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of a crush injury of the hand: a case report
Pedro Henry Neto, Zamara Brandão Ribeiro, Adriano Bastos Pinho, Carlos Henrique Rodrigues de Almeida, Carlos Alberto de Albuquerque Maranhão, Joaquim da Cunha Campos Goncalves
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):209-214.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0048
  • 4,632 View
  • 139 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
We describe a case of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOt) as an adjunct to treatment of a crush injury to the hand. A 34-year-old male paramedic was involved in a motor vehicle accident and admitted for diagnosis and surgical treatment. He sustained a crush injury to his right hand and presented with significant muscle damage, including multiple fractures and dislocations, an avulsion injury of the flexor tendons, and amputation of the distal phalanx of the little finger. He underwent reconstructive surgery and received HBOt over the following days. In the following 2 months, he lost the distal and middle phalanges of the little finger and recovered hand function. Posttraumatic compartment syndrome responds well to HBOt, which reduces edema and contributes to angiogenesis, as well as promoting the cascade of healing events. High-energy trauma causes massive cell destruction, and the blood supply is usually not sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of viable tissues. Hyperbaric oxygenation by diffusion through interstitial and cellular fluids increases tissue oxygenation to levels sufficient for the host’s responses to injury to work and helps control the delayed inflammatory reaction. HBOt used as an adjunct to surgical treatment resulted in early healing and rehabilitation, accelerating functional recovery. The results suggest that adjunctive HBOt can be beneficial for the treatment of crush injuries of the hand, resulting in better functional outcomes and helping to avoid unnecessary amputations.
Summary
Management of a traumatic anorectal full-thickness laceration: a case report
Laura Fortuna, Andrea Bottari, Riccardo Somigli, Sandro Giannessi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):215-218.   Published online May 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0049
  • 2,392 View
  • 125 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The rectum is the least frequently injured organ in trauma, with an incidence of about 1% to 3% in trauma cases involving civilians. Most rectal injuries are caused by gunshot wounds, blunt force trauma, and stab wounds. A 46-year-old male patient was crushed between two vehicles while he was working. He was hemodynamically unstable, and the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma showed hemoperitoneum and hemoretroperitoneum; therefore, damage control surgery with pelvic packing was performed. A subsequent whole-body computed tomography scan showed a displaced pelvic bone and sacrum fracture. There was evidence of an anorectal full-thickness laceration and urethral laceration. In second-look surgery performed 48 hours later, the pelvis was stabilized with external fixators, and it was decided to proceed with loop sigmoid colostomy. A tractioned rectal probe with an internal balloon was positioned in order to approach the flaps of the rectal wall laceration. On postoperative day 13, a radiological examination with endoluminal contrast injected from the stoma after removal of the balloon was performed and showed no evidence of extraluminal leak. Rectosigmoidoscopy, rectal manometry, anal sphincter electromyography, and trans-stomic transit examinations showed normal findings, indicating that it was appropriate to proceed with the closure of the colostomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The optimal management for extraperitoneal penetrating rectal injuries continues to evolve. Primary repair with fecal diversion is the mainstay of treatment, and a conservative approach to rectal lacerations with an internal balloon in a rectal probe could provide a possibility for healing with a lower risk of complications.
Summary
Exercise-induced traumatic muscle injuries with active bleeding successfully treated by embolization: three case reports
Yoonjung Heo, Hye Lim Kang, Dong Hun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):219-222.   Published online September 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0028
  • 1,555 View
  • 44 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Muscle injuries caused by indirect trauma during exercise are common. Most of these injuries can be managed conservatively; however, further treatment is required in extreme cases. Although transcatheter arterial embolization is a possible treatment modality, its role in traumatic muscle injuries remains unclear. In this case series, we present three cases of exercise-induced muscle hemorrhage treated by transcatheter arterial embolization with successful outcomes. The damaged muscles were the rectus abdominis, adductor longus, and iliopsoas, and the vascular injuries were accessed via the femoral artery during the procedures.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Thermal and Magnetic Dual-Responsive Catheter-Assisted Shape Memory Microrobots for Multistage Vascular Embolization
    Qianbi Peng, Shu Wang, Jianguo Han, Chenyang Huang, Hengyuan Yu, Dong Li, Ming Qiu, Si Cheng, Chong Wu, Mingxue Cai, Shixiong Fu, Binghan Chen, Xinyu Wu, Shiwei Du, Tiantian Xu
    Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Endovascular treatment of penetrating nail gun injury of the cervical spine and vertebral artery: a case report
Alexei Christodoulides, Scott Mitchell, Bradley N. Bohnstedt
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):223-227.   Published online May 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0082
  • 1,773 View
  • 70 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
In this report, we present a case of high cervical penetrating trauma with vertebral artery injury and outline preprocedural, procedural, and postprocedural considerations with recommendations for the treatment of similar injuries. Management involves multiple imaging modalities, including X-ray imaging, computed tomography, computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. We recommend endovascular treatment of these injuries when possible, based on the improved ability to achieve proximal and distal control and manage hemorrhage risk.
Summary

J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury