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36 "Injury Severity Score"
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Original Articles
Validation of chest trauma scoring systems in polytrauma: a retrospective study with 1,038 patients in Korea
Hongrye Kim, Mou Seop Lee, Su Young Yoon, Jonghee Han, Jin Young Lee, Junepill Seok
Received December 20, 2023  Accepted January 26, 2024  Published online May 9, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2023.0087    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
Appropriate scoring systems can help classify and treat polytrauma patients. This study aimed to validate chest trauma scoring systems in polytrauma patients.
Methods
Data from 1,038 polytrauma patients were analyzed. The primary outcomes were one or more complications: pneumonia, chest complications requiring surgery, and mortality. The Thoracic Trauma Severity Score (TTSS), Chest Trauma Score, Rib Fracture Score, and RibScore were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis in patients with or without head trauma.
Results
In total, 1,038 patients were divided into two groups: those with complications (822, 79.2%) and those with no complications (216, 20.8%). Sex and body mass index did not significantly differ between the groups. However, age was higher in the complications group (64.1±17.5 years vs. 54.9±17.6 years, P<0.001). The proportion of head trauma patients was higher (58.3% vs. 24.6%, P<0.001) and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was worse (median [interquartile range], 12 [6.5–15] vs. 15 [14–15]; P<0.001) in the complications group. The number of rib fractures, the degree of rib fracture displacement, and the severity of pulmonary contusions were also higher in the complications group. In the area under the ROC curve analysis, the TTSS showed the highest predictive value for the entire group (0.731), head trauma group (0.715), and no head trauma group (0.730), while RibScore had the poorest performance (0.643, 0.622, and 0.622, respectively)
Conclusions
Early injury severity detection and grading are crucial for patients with blunt chest trauma. The chest trauma scoring systems introduced to date, including the TTSS, are not acceptable for clinical use, especially in polytrauma patients with traumatic brain injury. Therefore, further revisions and analyses of chest trauma scoring systems are recommended.
Summary
The practicality of interleukin-6 in prognosis of blunt chest trauma in Korea: a retrospective study
Jeong Woo Oh, Tae Yeon Lee, Minjeong Chae
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):114-120.   Published online December 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0050
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
There are many studies on the practicality of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a prognostic predictor in patients with multiple severe traumas. However, few studies focus on the practicality of IL-6 in patients with chest trauma. So, this study investigated whether IL-6 is effective as a prognostic factor in patients with blunt chest trauma.
Methods
A total of 44 blunt chest trauma patients who visited the regional trauma center from July to December 2021 were included in this retrospective study. Blood IL-6 levels were measured immediately after emergency room admittance (IL-6 E) and 24 hours after trauma (IL-6 24). To determine whether IL-6 levels can predict the clinical course and prognosis of patients with blunt chest trauma, the correlation between IL-6 (IL-6 E and IL-6 24) and the trauma score system, Injury Severity Score, Thoracic Trauma Severity Score, and Pulmonary Contusion Score, intensive care unit (ICU) stay period, and total hospitalization period were analyzed.
Results
IL-6 E showed a good correlation with Injury Severity Score (P=0.505), Thoracic Trauma Severity Score (P=0.597), Pulmonary Contusion Score (P=0.493), ICU stay period (P=0.762), and total hospitalization period (P=0.662). However, IL-6 24 had a relatively low correlation compared to IL-6 E. Therefore, IL-6 E showed useful results for predicting the prognosis of patients with blunt chest trauma.
Conclusions
Early plasma IL-6 levels (IL-6 E) can predict the injury severity of blunt chest trauma, length of ICU stay, and total hospitalization period.
Summary
Changes in incidence and severity of commercial motorcycle accidents due to the use of delivery service platforms in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
Dam Moon, Jae Ho Jang, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Yeon Choi, Jae-hyug Woo, Woo Sung Choi, Sung Yeol Hyun, Seung Hwan Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2023;36(2):121-127.   Published online September 19, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0031
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Recently, a sharp increase in the use of delivery services has led to an increase in motorcycle accidents. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the commercial motorcycle injured patients and factors related to the severity during the past 10 years.
Methods
Patients (15–64 years old) who visited the emergency department with commercial motorcycle accidents injury registered in the Korean Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (2011–2020) database, were included. All included cases were categorized into two groups according to the period: group 1 (2011–2015) and group 2 (2016–2020). General characteristics and the factors associated with severity were investigated.
Results
Among 8,123 emergency department visits, patients in group 1 were 3,071, and patients in group 2 were 5,052. The odds for severity were affected by patients age (odds ratio [OR], 1.008; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.013), and overnight/morning (00:00–12:00; OR, 1.243; 95% CI, 1.091–1.415). The odds for severity were higher in head and neck injury (OR, 8.357; 95% CI, 7.410–9.424) and torso injury (OR, 4.122; 95% CI, 3.610–4.708). The odds for the severity of accidents based on excess mortality ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score (EMR-ISS) after 2015 were significant (OR, 1.491; 95% CI, 1.318–1.687). Hospitalization in the intensive care unit and death were associated with accidents after 2015 (OR, 2.593; 95% CI, 2.120–3.170).
Conclusions
Commercial motorcycle accidents have increased significantly over the past decade. There were statistical differences in severity based on EMR-ISS and the hospitalization in intensive care unit and death.
Summary
An analysis of missed injuries in patients with severe trauma
EunGyu Ju, Sun Young Baek, Sung Soo Hong, Younghwan Kim, Seok Hwa Youn
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):248-254.   Published online September 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2022.0017
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
To analyze the data of trauma patients with undetected injuries at the time of initial resuscitation during the primary and secondary surveys.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 807 patients who were hospitalized at the National Trauma Center, Seoul, Korea from June 1, 2019 to June 30, 2021.
Results
In trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16 accounted for 38.0% in the non-missed injury group (non-MIG), but this rate was considerably higher at 71.2% in MIG. The mean hospitalization longer in MIG (50.90±39.56) than in non-MIG (24.74±26.11). The proportion of patients with missed injuries detected through tertiary trauma survey (TTS) was 28 patients (23.5%) within 24 hours, 90 patients (75.6%) after 24 hours to before discharge. The majority of missed injuries were fractures (82.4%) and ligament tears (8.4%), which required consultation with the orthopedic department. The final diagnoses of missed injuries were confirmed by computed tomography (44.5%), magnetic resonance imaging (19.3%), X-ray (19.3%), bone scan (11.8%), and physical examination (5.0%).
Conclusions
TTS is considered a useful process for detecting missed injuries that were not identified at the time of initial resuscitation in the primary and secondary surveys. In the future, to detect missed injuries quickly, it is necessary to develop a suitable TTS program for each trauma center. In addition, further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of the protocolized TTS and survey chart to improve the effectiveness of TTS.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Tertiary Trauma Survey on Emergency Department Observational Units: A Systematic Literature Review
    Tamkeen Pervez, Mehreen Malik
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Initial assessment of hemorrhagic shock by trauma computed tomography measurement of the inferior vena cava in blunt trauma patients
Gun Ho Lee, Jeong Woo Choi
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):181-188.   Published online June 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0066
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Inferior vena cava (IVC) collapse is related to hypovolemia. Sonography has been used to measure the IVC diameter, but there is variation depending on the skill of the operator and it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements in patients who have a large amount of intestinal gas or are obese. As a modality to obtain accurate measurements, we measured the diameters of the IVC and aorta on trauma computed tomography scans and investigated the correlation between the IVC to aorta ratio and the shock index in blunt trauma patients.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 588 trauma patients who were transferred to the regional trauma center (level 1) of Wonkang University hospital from March 2020 to February 2021. We included trauma patients 18 years or older who met the trauma activation criteria and underwent trauma computed tomography scans with intravenous contrast within 40 minutes of admission. The shock index was calculated from vital signs before trauma computed tomography scan, and measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the IVC (AP), the transverse diameter of the IVC (T), and aorta were made 10 mm above the right renal vein in the venous phase.
Results
Overall, 271 patients were included in this study, of whom 150 had a shock index ≤0.7 and 121 had a shock index >0.7. The T to AP ratio and AP to aorta ratio were significantly different between groups. Cutoffs were identified for the T to AP ratio and AP to aorta ratio (2.37 and 0.62, respectively) that produced clinically useful sensitivity and specificity for predicting a shock index >0.7, demonstrating moderate accuracy (T to AP ratio: area under the curve, 0.71; sensitivity, 59%; specificity, 87% and AP to aorta ratio: area under the curve, 0.70; sensitivity, 55%; specificity, 91%).
Conclusions
The T to AP ratio and AP to aorta ratio are useful for predicting hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients.
Summary
Could the Injury Severity Score be a new indicator for surgical treatment in patients with traumatic splenic injury?
HyeJeong Jeong, SungWon Jung, Tae Gil Heo, Pyong Wha Choi, Jae Il Kim, Sung Min Jung, Heungman Jun, Yong Chan Shin, Eunhae Um
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(3):189-194.   Published online May 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0065
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) could serve as an indicator of splenectomy in patients with traumatic splenic lacerations.
Methods
A total of 256 cases of splenic laceration were collected from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2018. After the application of exclusion criteria, 105 were eligible for this study. Charts were reviewed for demographic characteristics, initial vital signs upon presentation to the emergency room, Glasgow Coma Scale, computed tomography findings, ISS, and treatment strategies. The cases were then divided into nonsplenectomy and splenectomy groups for analysis.
Results
When analyzed with the chi-square test and t-test, splenectomy was associated with a systolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg, a Glasgow Coma Scale score lower than 13, active bleeding found on computed tomography, a splenic laceration grade greater than or equal to 4, and an ISS greater than 15 at presentation. However, in multivariate logistic regression analysis, only active bleeding on computed tomography showed a statistically significant relationship (P=0.014).
Conclusions
Although ISS failed to show a statistically significant independent relationship with splenectomy, it may still play a supplementary role in traumatic splenic injury management.
Summary
Impact of obesity on the severity of trauma in patients injured in pedestrian traffic accidents
Pillsung Oh, Jin-Seong Cho, Jae Ho Jang, Jae Yeon Choi, Woo Sung Choi, Byungchul Yu
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(4):240-247.   Published online December 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0050
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
Studies on the relationship between obesity and injuries, especially those sustained in pedestrian traffic accidents, are lacking. We aimed to assess the effects of obesity on the severity of injury at the time of admission to the emergency room in patients who experienced pedestrian traffic accidents.
Methods
This study included trauma patients registered in the Korean Trauma Database from July 1, 2018 to December 31, 2020, whose mechanism of injury was pedestrian traffic accidents and who were treated at a single institution. Those aged below 15 years were excluded. Patients were assigned to nonobese and obese groups based on a body mass index of 25 kg/m². An Injury Severity Score of 25 or greater was considered to indicate a critical injury.
Results
In total, 679 cases of pedestrian traffic accidents were registered during the study period, and 543 patients were included in the final analysis. Of them, 360 patients (66.3%) and 183 patients (33.7%) were categorized as nonobese and obese, respectively. The median age was significantly higher in the nonobese group than in the obese group (60 vs. 58 years). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the odds ratio for critical injury in obese patients was 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.48) compared with nonobese patients.
Conclusions
Obesity affected the likelihood of sustaining severe injuries in pedestrian traffic accidents. Future studies should analyze the effects of body mass index on the pattern and severity of injuries in patients with more diverse injury mechanisms using large-scale data.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Changes in incidence and severity of commercial motorcycle accidents due to the use of delivery service platforms in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
    Dam Moon, Jae Ho Jang, Jin Seong Cho, Jae Yeon Choi, Jae-hyug Woo, Woo Sung Choi, Sung Yeol Hyun, Seung Hwan Lee
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2023; 36(2): 121.     CrossRef
  • Pregnancy is associated with more severe injuries from motor vehicle crashes
    Ya-Hui Chang, Yu-Wen Chien, Chiung-Hsin Chang, Ping-Ling Chen, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Chung-Yi Li
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Characteristics of injuries associated with electric personal mobility devices: a nationwide cross-sectional study in South Korea
Maro Kim, Dongbum Suh, Jin Hee Lee, Hyuksool Kwon, Yujin Choi, Joo Jeong, Sola Kim, Soyun Hwang, Joong Wan Park, You Hwan Jo
J Trauma Inj. 2022;35(1):3-11.   Published online October 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2021.0044
  • 16,786 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
The increasing use of electric personal mobility devices (ePMDs) has been accompanied by an increasing incidence of associated accidents. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of ePMD-related injuries and their associated factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance database from 2014 to 2018. All patients who were injured while operating an ePMD were eligible. The primary outcome was the rate of severe injury, defined as an excess mortality ratio-adjusted Injury Severity Score of ≥25. We calculated the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of outcomes associated with ePMD-related injuries. Results: Of 1,391,980 injured patients, 684 (0.05%) were eligible for inclusion in this study. Their median age was 28 years old, and most injuries were sustained by men (68.0%). The rate of ePMD-related injuries increased from 3.1 injuries per 100,000 population in 2014 to 100.3 per 100,000 population in 2018. A majority of the injuries occurred on the street (32.7%). The most commonly injured area was the head and face (49.6%), and the most common diagnosis was superficial injuries or contusions (32.9%). Being aged 55 years or older (AOR=3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33–11.36) and operating an ePMD while intoxicated (AOR=2.78; 95% CI 1.52–5.08) were associated with severe injuries. Conclusions: The number of emergency room visits due to ePMD-related injuries is increasing. Old age and drunk driving are both associated with serious injuries. Active traffic enforcement and safety regulations regarding ePMDs should be implemented to prevent severe injuries caused by ePMD-related accidents.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Types of injuries caused by isolated electric scooter accidents
    Kyongwon Yoo, Hyung Il Kim
    Journal of Trauma and Injury.2022; 35(4): 232.     CrossRef
Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Bicycle-Related Injuries at a Regional Trauma Center in Korea
Yoonhyun Lee, Min Ho Lee, Dae Sang Lee, Maru Kim, Dae Hyun Jo, Hyosun Park, Hangjoo Cho
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(3):147-154.   Published online June 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0066
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

We analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of patients with bicycle-related injuries at a regional trauma center in northern Gyeonggi Province as a first step toward the development of improved prevention measures and treatments.

Methods

The records of 239 patients who were injured in different types of bicycle-related accidents and transported to a single regional trauma center between January 2017 and December 2018 were examined. This retrospective single-center study used data from the Korea Trauma Database.

Results

In total, 239 patients experienced bicycle-related accidents, most of whom were males (204, 85.4%), and 46.9% of the accidents were on roads for automobiles. Forty patients (16.7%) had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or more. There were 125 patients (52.3%) with head/neck/face injuries, 97 patients (40.6%) with injuries to the extremities, 59 patients (24.7%) with chest injuries, and 21 patients (8.8%) with abdominal injuries. Patients who had head/neck/face injuries and an Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) ≥3 were more likely to experience severe trauma (ISS ≥16). In addition, only 13 of 125 patients (10.4%) with head/neck/face injuries were wearing helmets, and patients with injuries in this region who were not wearing helmets had a 3.9-fold increased odds ratio of severe injury (AIS ≥2).

Conclusions

We suggest that comprehensive accident prevention measures, including safety training and expansion of safety facilities, should be implemented at the governmental level, and that helmet wearing should be more strictly enforced to prevent injuries to the head, neck, and face.

Summary
Characteristics of Traffic Accidents on Highways: An Analysis Based on Patients Treated at a Regional Trauma Center
Sung Yong Lee, Kyung Hoon Sun, Chan Yong Park, Tae Hoon Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2021;34(4):263-269.   Published online June 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.0063
  • 8,481 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

There have been increasing concerns about serious traffic accidents on highways. The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting traffic accidents on highways and the severity of the resulting injuries.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted at a regional trauma center. We reviewed 594 patients who had been in 114 traffic accidents on highways from January 2018 to June 2020. We collected demographic data, clinical data, accident-related factors, and meteorological data (weather and temperature).

Results

Environmental risk factors were found to be significantly associated with the incidence of traffic accidents on highways. Injury severity and the death rate were higher in sedans than in any other type of vehicle. Tunnels were the most common location of accidents, accounting for 47 accidents (41.2%) and 269 injured patients (45.3%). The injury severity of individuals riding in the driver’s seat (front seat) was high, regardless of vehicle type. Three meteorological risk factors were found to be significantly associated with traffic accidents: rainy roads (odds ratio [OR] 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84–3.29; p=0.01), icy or snowy roads (OR 5.12; 95% CI 2.88–7.33; p<0.01), and foggy conditions (OR 2.94; 95% CI 2.15–4.03; p<0.05).

Conclusions

The injury severity of patients was affected by seat position and type of vehicle, and the frequency of accident was affected by the location. The incidence of traffic accidents was strongly influenced by meteorological conditions (rain, snow/ice, and fog).

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • What are the individual and joint impacts of key meteorological factors on the risk of unintentional injuries? A case-crossover study of over 147,800 cases from a sentinel-based surveillance system
    Xiao Lin, Tian Tian, Congxing Shi, Pengyu Wang, Shimin Chen, Tong Guo, Zhiqiang Li, Boheng Liang, Wangjian Zhang, Pengzhe Qin, Yuantao Hao
    Sustainable Cities and Society.2023; 91: 104413.     CrossRef
The Suitability of the CdC field Triage for Korean Trauma Care
Kang Kook Choi, Myung Jin Jang, Min A Lee, Gil Jae Lee, Byungchul Yoo, Youngeun Park, Jung Nam Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2020;33(1):13-17.   Published online March 30, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2020.013
  • 5,317 View
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  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

Accurate and appropriate prehospital field triage is essential for a trauma system. The Korean trauma system (established in 2014) uses the trauma field triage algorithm of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This study evaluated the suitability of the CDC field triage criteria for major trauma cases (injury severity score >15) in Korea.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study evaluated trauma patients who presented at the authors’ regional trauma center from January 1 to May 7, 2017. The undertriage and overtriage rates of each CDC field triage step were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) was evaluated for each step.

Results

Among the 1,009 enrolled patients, 168 (16.7%) had major trauma. The undertriage/overtriage rates of each step (steps I, II, III, and IV) of CDC field triage were 9.2%/47.4%, 6.3%/50.8%, 4.5%/59.4%, and 5.3%/78.9%, respectively. The AUC values of each CDC triage step were 0.722, 0.783, 0.791, and 0.615, respectively. The AUC values of the separate components of each step (physiologic criteria, anatomic criteria, mechanism-of-injury criteria, and special considerations) were 0.722, 0.648, 0.647, and 0.456, respectively.

Conclusions

The CDC field triage system is acceptable, but not ideal, for Korean trauma care. If we follow the protocol, it would be preferable to omit step IV. The Korean Triage and Acuity Scale may be a good indicator for in-hospital triage. However, a new triage protocol that is simple to estimate on-scene while having good performance should be developed.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Transport to Trauma Centers on Survival Outcomes Among Severe Trauma Patients in Korea: Nationwide Age-Stratified Analysis
    Hakrim Kim, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Jeong Ho Park, Tae Han Kim, Stephen Gyung Won Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prehospital triage in emergency medical services system: A scoping review
    Kisook Kim, Booyoung Oh
    International Emergency Nursing.2023; 69: 101293.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of the Suitability of Trauma Triage According to Physiological Criteria in Korea
    Gil Hwan Kim, Jae Hun Kim, Hohyun Kim, Seon Hee Kim, Sung Jin Park, Sang Bong Lee, Chan Ik Park, Dong Yeon Ryu, Kang Ho Lee, Sun Hyun Kim, Na Hyeon Lee, Il Jae Wang
    Journal of Acute Care Surgery.2022; 12(3): 120.     CrossRef
Effectiveness after Designation of a Trauma Center: Experience with Operating a Trauma Team at a Private Hospital
Kyoung Hwan Kim, Sung Ho Han, Soon-Ho Chon, Joongsuck Kim, Oh Sang Kwon, Min Koo Lee, Hohyoung Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(1):1-7.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.054
  • 3,218 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of how the trauma care system applied on the management of trauma patient within the region.

Methods

We divided the patients in a pre-trauma system group and a post-trauma system group according to the time when we began to apply the trauma care system in the Halla Hospital after designation of a trauma center. We compared annual general characteristics, injury severity score, the average numbers of the major trauma patients, clinical outcomes of the emergency department, and mortality rates between the two groups.

Results

No significant differences were found in the annual patients’ average age (54.1±20.0 vs. 52.8±18.2, p=0.201), transportation pathways (p=0.462), injury mechanism (p=0.486), injury severity score (22.93 vs. 23.96, p=0.877), emergency room (ER) stay in minutes (199.17 vs. 194.29, p=0.935), time to operation or procedure in minutes (154.07 vs. 142.1, p=0.767), time interval to intensive care unit (ICU) in minutes (219.54 vs. 237.13, p=0.662). The W score and Z score indicated better outcomes in post-trauma system group than in pre-trauma system group (W scores, 2.186 vs. 2.027; Z scores, 2.189 vs. 1.928). However, when analyzing survival rates for each department, in the neurosurgery department, in comparison with W score and Z score, both W score were positive and Z core was higher than +1.96. (pre-trauma group: 3.426, 2.335 vs. post-trauma group: 4.17, 1.967). In other than the neurosurgery department, W score was positive after selection, but Z score was less than +1.96, which is not a meaningful outcome of treatment (pre-trauma group: ?0.358, ?0.271 vs. post-trauma group: 1.071, 0.958).

Conclusions

There were significant increases in patient numbers and improvement in survival rate after the introduction of the trauma system. However, there were no remarkable change in ER stay, time to ICU admission, time interval to emergent procedure or operation, and survival rates except neurosurgery. To achieve meaningful survival rates and the result of the rise of the trauma index, we will need to secure sufficient manpower, including specialists in various surgical area as well as rapid establishment of the trauma center.

Summary
Management and Outcome of Patients with Acetabular Fractures: Associated Injuries and Prognostic Factors
Do-Hyun Yeo, Jong-Keon Oh, Jae-Woo Cho, Beom-Soo Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2019;32(1):32-39.   Published online March 31, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.016
  • 3,842 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

The aim of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the surgical treatment outcomes of acetabular fractures. Simultaneously, we aim to report on the treatment results after our hospital was designated as the focused training center for trauma.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who experienced acetabular fractures from January 1, 2014 to May 1, 2017 and visited our hospital. Patients who had associated pelvic ring fractures or were lost to the one-year follow-up were excluded; a total of 37 fractures were evaluated. We evaluated the clinical results using the scoring system of Merle d’Aubign? (MDA) and grade of Brooker for heterotopic ossification.

Results

Thirty-seven patients (31 men and 6 women) were identified. The mean injury severity score (ISS) was 8.7, with 32.4% of patients having a score >15. The average blood transfusion in the first 24 hours was 0.54 pints. Falling was the most common injury mechanism (32.4%). Chest injury was the most common associated injury (16.2%), followed by head injury (13.5%). The posterior wall and both column fracture were the most common (37.8%) fracture patterns. Excellent and good clinical grades of MDA included 28 patients (75.6%) and fair and poor grades included nine (24.3%), respectively. Four patients were diagnosed with a post-operative infection (10.8%); one out of four patients who had co-morbidity died (2.7%), and another patient underwent a replacement surgery (2.7%). Multivariate analysis showed that age and operation time were associated with MDA. In addition, operation time and ISS were significant co-factors of the Brooker grade.

Conclusions

Korea University Guro Hospital showed similar treatment results of acetabular fractures compared to other publications. The age and operation time were co-factors of the clinical outcome of this fracture. Additionally, increased operation time and injury severity score were suggested to increase the Brooker grade.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Outcome of acetabulum fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation through Kocher-Langenbeck Approach: A retrospective study
    Dharmendra Kumar, Narendra Singh Kushwaha, Prakash Gaurav Tiwari, Yashvardhan Sharma, R.N. Srivastava, Vineet Sharma
    Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma.2021; 23: 101599.     CrossRef
  • FUNCTIONAL AND RADIOLOGICAL OUTCOMES OF ACETABULAR FRACTURES
    Sangam Jain, Dishit Vaghasia, Tanay Nahatkar, Spandan Koshire, Amol Salve, Vinod Kumar Yadav
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH.2021; : 1.     CrossRef
Central Venous Catheterization before Versus after Computed Tomography in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients with Major Blunt Trauma: Clinical Characteristics and Factors for Decision Making
Ji Hun Kim, Sang Ook Ha, Young Sun Park, Jeong Hyeon Yi, Sun Beom Hur, Ki Ho Lee
J Trauma Inj. 2018;31(3):135-142.   Published online December 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2018.022
  • 3,189 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose

When hemodynamically unstable patients with blunt major trauma arrive at the emergency department (ED), the safety of performing early whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) is concerning. Some clinicians perform central venous catheterization (CVC) before WBCT (pre-computed tomography [CT] group) for hemodynamic stabilization. However, as no study has reported the factors affecting this decision, we compared clinical characteristics and outcomes of the pre- and post-CT groups and determined factors affecting this decision.

Methods

This retrospective study included 70 hemodynamically unstable patients with chest or/and abdominal blunt injury who underwent WBCT and CVC between March 2013 and November 2017.

Results

Univariate analysis revealed that the injury severity score, intubation, pulse pressure, focused assessment with sonography in trauma positivity score, and pH were different between the pre-CT (34 patients, 48.6%) and post-CT (all, p<0.05) groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that injury severity score (ISS) and intubation were factors affecting the decision to perform CVC before CT (p=0.003 and p=0.043). Regarding clinical outcomes, the interval from ED arrival to CT (p=0.011) and definite bleeding control (p=0.038), and hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay (p=0.018 and p=0.053) were longer in the pre-CT group than in the post-CT group. Although not significant, the pre-CT group had lower survival rates at 24 hours and 28 days than the post-CT group (p=0.168 and p=0.226).

Conclusions

Clinicians have a tendency to perform CVC before CT in patients with blunt major trauma and high ISS and intubation.

Summary
Mortality Reduction in Major Trauma Patients after Establishment of a Level I Trauma Center in Korea: A Single-Center Experience
Young Il Roh, Hyung Il Kim, Yong Sung Cha, Kyoung-Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Oh Hyun Kim
J Trauma Inj. 2017;30(4):131-139.   Published online December 30, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.20408/jti.2017.30.4.131
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Purpose

Trauma systems have been shown to decrease injury-related mortality. The present study aimed to compare the mortality rates of patients with major trauma (injury severity score >15) treated before and after the establishment of a level I trauma center.

Methods

During this 20-month study, participants were divided into pre-trauma center and trauma center groups, and trauma and injury severity score (TRISS) method was used to compare mortality rates during 10-month periods before and after the establishment of the trauma center (October 2013 to July 2014 vs. October 2014 to July 2015).

Results

Of the 541 total participants, 278 (51.5%) visited after the establishment of the trauma center. The Z and W statistics indicated better outcomes in the trauma center group than in the pre-trauma center group (Z statistic, 2.635 vs. ?0.700; W statistic, 4.640). The trauma center group also exhibited meaningful reductions in the time interval from the emergency department (ED) visit to emergency surgery (118.0 minutes vs. 142.5 minutes, p=0.020) and the interval from the ED visit to intensive care unit admission (202.0 minutes vs. 259.0 minutes, p=0.035) relative to the pre-trauma center group.

Conclusions

The TRISS and multivariate analysis revealed significant improvements in survival rates in the trauma center group, compared to the pre-trauma center group.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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J Trauma Inj : Journal of Trauma and Injury